Working Group

Alaskan Malamute

Posted in Working Group

 

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

General Appearance:

The Alaskan Malamute, one of the oldest Arctic sled dogs, is a powerful and substantially built dog with a deep chest and strong, well-muscled body. The Malamute stands well over the pads, and this stance gives the appearance of much activity and a proud carriage, with head erect and eyes alert showing interest and curiosity. The head is broad. Ears are triangular and erect when alerted. The muzzle is bulky, only slight diminishing in width from root to nose. The muzzle is not pointed or long, yet not stubby. The coat is thick with a coarse guard coat of sufficient length to protect a woolly undercoat. Malamutes are of various colours. Face markings are a distinguishing feature. These consist of a cap over the head, the face either all white or marked with a bar and/or mask. The tail is well furred, carried over the back, and has the appearance of a waving plume.
The Malamute must be a heavy boned dog with sound legs, good feet, deep chest and powerful shoulders, and have all of the other physical attributes necessary for the efficient performance of his job. The gait must be steady, balanced, tireless and totally efficient. He is not intended as a racing sled dog designed to compete in speed trials. The Malamute is structured for strength and endurance, and any characteristic of the individual specimen, including temperament, which interferes with the accomplishment of this purpose, is to be considered the most serious of faults.

SIZE, PROPORTION, SUBSTANCE:
There is a natural range in size in the breed. The desirable freighting sizes are males, 25 inches (63.5cm) at the shoulders, 85 pounds (35kgs); females, 23 inches (58.5cm ) at the shoulders, 75 pounds (34kgs). However, size consideration should not outweigh that of type, proportion, movement and other functional attributes. When dogs are judged equal in type, proportion, movement, the dog nearest the desirable freighting size is to be preferred. The depth of chest is approximately one half the height of the dog at the shoulders, the deepest point being just behind the forelegs. The length of the body from point of shoulder to the rear point of pelvis is longer than the height of the body from ground to top of the withers. The body carries no excess weight, and bone is in proportion to size.

HEAD:
The head is broad and deep, not coarse or clumsy, but in proportion to the size of the dog. The expression is soft and indicates an affectionate disposition. The eyes are obliquely placed in the skull. Eyes are brown, almond shaped and of medium size. Dark eyes are preferred. Blue Eyes are a Disqualifying Fault. The ears are of medium size, but small in proportion to the head. The ears are triangular in shape and slightly rounded at the tips. They are set wide apart on the outside back edges of the skull on line with the upper corner of the eye, giving ears the appearance, when erect, of standing off from the skull. Erect ears point slightly forward, but when the dog is at work, the ears are sometimes folded against the skull. High set ears are a fault.
The skull is broad and moderately rounded between the ears, gradually narrowing and flattening on top as it approaches the eyes, rounding off to cheeks that are moderately flat. There is a slight furrow between the eyes. The topline of the skull and the topline of the muzzle show a slight break downward from a straight line as they join. The muzzle is large and bulky in proportion to the size of the skull, diminishing slightly in width and depth from junction with the skull to the nose. In all coat colors, except reds, the nose, lips, and eye rims' pigmentation is black. Brown is permitted in red dogs. The lighter streaked "snow nose" is acceptable. The lips are close fitting. The upper and lower jaws are broad with large teeth. The incisors meet with a scissors grip. Overshot or undershot is a fault.

NECK, TOPLINE, BODY:
The neck is strong and moderately arched. The chest is well developed. The body is compactly built but not short coupled. The back is straight and gently sloping to the hips. The loins are hard and well muscled. A long loin that may weaken the back is a fault. The tail is moderately set and follows the line of the spine at the base. The tail is carried over the back when not working. It is not a snap tail or curled tight against the back, nor is it short furred like a fox brush. The Malamute tail is well furred and has the appearance of a waving plume.

FOREQUARTERS:
The shoulders are moderately sloping; forelegs heavily boned and muscled, straight to the pasterns when viewed from the front. Pasterns are short and strong and slightly sloping when viewed from the side. The feet are of the snowshoe type, tight and deep, with well-cushioned pads, giving a firm, compact appearance. The feet are large, toes tight fitting and well arched. There is a protective growth of hair between the toes. The pads are thick and tough; toenails short and strong.

HINDQUARTERS:
The rear legs are broad and heavily muscled through the thighs; stifles moderately bent; hock joints are moderately bent and well let down. When viewed from the rear, the legs stand and move true in line with the movement of the front legs, not too close or too wide. Dewclaws on the rear legs are undesirable and should be removed shortly after puppies are whelped.

COAT:
The Malamute has a thick, coarse guard coat, never long and soft. The undercoat is dense, from one to two inches in depth, oily and woolly. The coarse guard coat varies in length as does the undercoat. The coat is relatively short to medium along the sides of the body, with the length of the coat increasing around the shoulders and neck, down the back, over the rump, and in the breeching and plume. Malamutes usually have a shorter and less dense coat during the summer months. The Malamute is shown naturally. Trimming is not acceptable except to provide a clean cut appearance of feet.

COLOR:
The usual colors range from light gray through intermediate shadings to black, sable, and shadings of sable to red. Color combinations are acceptable in undercoats, points, and trimmings. The only solid color allowable is all white. White is always the predominant color on underbody, parts of legs, feet, and part of face markings. A white blaze on the forehead and/or collar or a spot on the nape is attractive and acceptable. The Malamute is mantled, and broken colors extending over the body or uneven splashing are undesirable.

GAIT:
The gait of the Malamute is steady, balanced, and powerful. He is agile for his size and build. When viewed from the side, the hindquarters exhibit strong rear drive that is transmitted through a well-muscled loin to the forequarters. The forequarters receive the drive from the rear with a smooth reaching stride. When viewed from the front or from the rear, the legs move true in line, not too close or too wide. At a fast trot, the feet will converge toward the centerline of the body. A stilted gait, or any gait that is not completely efficient and tireless, is to be penalized.

TEMPERAMENT:
The Alaskan Malamute is an affectionate, friendly dog, not a "one man" dog. He is a loyal, devoted companion, playful in invitation, but generally impressive by his dignity after maturity.

Summary

IMPORTANT:

In judging Malamutes, their function as a sledge dog for heavy freighting in the Arctic must be given consideration above all else. The degree to which a dog is penalized should depend upon the extent to which the dog deviates from the description of the ideal Malamute and the extent to which the particular fault would actually affect the working ability of the dog. The legs of the Malamute must indicate unusual strength and tremendous propelling power. Any indication of unsoundness in legs and feet, front or rear, standing or moving, is to be considered a serious fault. Faults under this provision would be splay-footedness, cowhocks, bad pasterns, straight shoulders, lack of angulation, stilted gait (or any gait that isn't balanced, strong and steady), ranginess, shallowness, ponderousness, lightness of bone, and poor overall proportion.

Disqualifications

Blue Eyes

American Akita

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

AMERICAN AKITA – Working Group
(Effective 01.01.2016)

UTILIZATION:
Companion Dog

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
In the beginning, the history of the American Akitas is similar to the history of Japanese Akitas. Since 1603, in the Akita region, Akita Matagis (medium-sized bearhunting dogs) were used as fighting dogs. From 1868, Akita Matagis were crossbred with Tosas and Mastiffs. Consequently, the size of Akitas increased, but characteristics associated with Spitz type were lost. In 1908 dog fighting was prohibited, but Akitas were nevertheless preserved and improved as a large Japanese breed. As a result, nine superior examples of Akitas were designated as « Natural Monuments » in 1931. During World War II (1939-1945), it was common to use dogs as a source of fur for military garments. The police ordered the capture and confiscation of all dogs other than German Shepherd Dogs used for military purposes. Some fanciers tried to circumvent the order by crossbreeding their dogs with German Shepherd Dogs. When World War II ended, Akitas had been drastically reduced in number and existed as three distinct types: 1) Matagi Akitas 2) Fighting Akitas 3) Shepherd Akitas. This created a very confusing situation in the breed. During the restoration process of the pure breed after the war, Kongo-go of the Dewa line enjoyed a temporary, but tremendous popularity. Many Akitas of the Dewa line, which exhibited characteristics of the Mastiff and German Shepherd influence, were brought back to the United States by members of the Military Forces. The Akitas from the Dewa line, intelligent and capable of adapting to different environments, fascinated breeders in the United States and the line was developed with increasing number of breeders and a great rise in popularity. The Akita Club of America was established in 1956 and the American Kennel Club (AKC) accepted the breed (inscription into the stud book and regular show status) in October 1972. However, at this time, the AKC and the JKC (Japan Kennel Club) did not have reciprocal agreements for recognizing each other’s pedigrees and therefore the door was closed for the introduction of the new bloodlines from Japan. Consequently, Akitas in the United States became considerably different from those in Japan, the country of origin. They developed as a type unique in the United States, with characteristics and type unchanged since 1955. This is in sharp contrast with Akitas in Japan which were crossbred with Matagi Akitas for the purpose of restoring the original pure breed.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:
Large-sized dog, sturdily built, well balanced, with much substance and heavy bone. The broad head,
forming a blunt triangle, with deep muzzle, relatively small eyes and erect ears carried forward almost in line with back of neck, is characteristic of the breed.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:
The ratio of height at withers to length of body is 9 to 10 in males and 9 to 11 in bitches.
The depth of the chest measures one-half of the height of the dog at withers.
The distance from tip of nose to stop corresponds to the distance from stop to occiput as 2 does to 3.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT:
Friendly, alert, responsive, dignified, docile and courageous.

HEAD:
Massive, but in balance with the body, free of wrinkles when at ease. Head forms a blunt triangle when viewed from above.

CRANIAL REGION:
Skull: Flat and broad between ears. A shallow furrow extends well up on forehead.
Stop: Well defined, but not too abrupt.

FACIAL REGION:
Nose: Broad and black. Slight and diffuse lack of pigment on nose is acceptable in white dogs only but black is always preferred.
Muzzle: Broad, deep and full.
Lips: Black. Not pendulous; tongue pink.
Jaws/Teeth: Jaws not rounded, but blunt, strong and powerful. Teeth strong with regular and full dentition (lack of PM1 and M3 allowed). Scissor bite preferred, but level bite acceptable.
Eyes: Dark brown, relatively small, not prominent, almost triangular in shape. Eye rims black and tight.
Ears: Strongly erect and small in relation to the rest of the head. If the ear is folded forward for measuring length, tip will touch upper eye rim. Ears are triangular, slightly rounded at tip, wide at base, not set too low. Viewed from the side, the ears are angled forward over the eyes following the line of the neck.

NECK:
Thick and muscular with minimal dewlap, comparatively short, widening gradually toward shoulders. A pronounced crest blends harmoniously into the base of skull.

BODY:
Longer than high. Skin not too thin, neither too tight nor too loose.
Back: Level.
Loin: Firmly muscled.
Chest: Wide and deep. Ribs well sprung with well-developed brisket.
Underline and Belly: Moderate tuck-up.

TAIL:
Large and well furnished with hair, set high and carried over back or against flank in a three-quarter, full, or double curl, always dipping to or below level of back. On a three-quarter curl, tip drops well down on flank. Root large and strong. The terminal bone of tail reaches hock when let or pulled down. Hair coarse, straight and dense, with no appearance of a plume.

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS:
General appearance: Forelegs heavy-boned and straight as viewed from front.
Shoulders: Strong and powerful with moderate layback.
Pasterns: Slightly sloping forward in an angle of approximately 15° to the vertical.

HINDQUARTERS:
General appearance: Strongly muscled, width and bone comparable to forequarters. Dewclaws on hind legs customarily removed.
Upper thigh: Strong, well developed, parallel when viewed from behind.
Stifles: Moderately bent.
Hock joints: Well let down, turning neither in nor out.

FEET:
Straight, cat feet, well knuckled up with thick pads.

GAIT / MOVEMENT: Powerful, covering ground with moderate reach and drive. Hindlegs move in line with forelegs. Back remaining strong, firm and level.

COAT
HAIR: Double-coat. Undercoat thick, soft, dense and shorter than outer coat. Outer coat straight, harsh/stiff and standing somewhat off body. Hair on head, lower legs and ears short. Length of hair at withers and croup approximately 5 cm, which is slightly longer than on rest of body, except tail, where coat is longest and most profuse.

COLOUR: Any colour like red, fawn, white, etc; or even pinto and brindle. Colours are brilliant and clear, and markings are well balanced, with or without mask or blaze. White dogs (solid in colour) have no mask. Pinto have a white ground colour with large, evenly placed patches covering head and more than one-third of body. Undercoat may have a different colour from the outer-coat.

SIZE:
Height at withers: For males: 66 to 71 cm (26-28 inches),
for bitches: 61 to 66 cm (24-26 inches).

FAULTS:
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
• Feminine dogs, masculine bitches.
• Narrow or snipey head.
• Any missing tooth (except PM1 and M3).
• Blue or black spotted tongue.
• Light eyes.
• Short tail.
• In or out at elbows.
• Any indication of ruff or feathering.
• Shyness or viciousness.

SERIOUS FAULTS:
• Light in substance.
• Light bone.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:
• Aggressive or overly shy.
• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• Totally unpigmented nose. A nose with unpigmented areas (Butterfly nose).
• Drop, hanging or folded ears.
• Under- or overshot bite.
• Sickle or uncurled tail.
• Dogs under 63,5 cm (25 inches), bitches under 58,5 cm (23 inches).

N.B.:
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

 

Appenzell Cattle Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION : Driving-, watch-, guard-, house- and farm dog.

Today also a versatile working and family dog.

FCI-CLASSIFICATION : Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer- Molossoid breeds- Swiss Mountain- and Cattle Dogs.

Section 3 Swiss Mountain- and Cattle Dogs. Without working trial.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY : In 1853 an Appenzell Cattle Dog was first described in the book “Tierleben der Alpenwelt”

(Animal Life in the Alps) as a “high-pitch barking, short-haired, medium size, multicolour cattle dog of a quite even Spitz type, which can be found in certain regions and is used partly to guard the homestead, partly to herd cattle.” In 1895, the great promotor of the breed, head-forester Max Siber, asked the SKG (Schweizerische Kynologische Gesellschaft, Swiss Cynological Society) to do something for the breed. 1898 the executive authorities of the Canton St. Gallen put the sum of SFr. 400.- at disposal to support the

breeding of the Appenzell Cattle Dog. The SKG then formed a special commission, the characteristic traits of the breed were fixed, and at the fair at Altstätten 9 dogs and 7 bitches appeared; they received prizes between SFr.5. to 10-. As a result, 8 Appenzell Cattle Dogs were shown at the first international dog show in Winterthur and entered in the newly introduced, separate class “Cattle Dogs”.

At the instigation of Prof. Dr. Albert Heim, who commited himself very much to the Swiss Cattle Dogs and with them also to the Appenzell Cattle Dog, the “Appenzeller Sennenhund Club” was

founded in 1906. Its purpose was to preserve and promote the breed in its natural state. With the compulsory registration of puppies in the “Appenzeller Dog Stud Book” the aim of selective pure-breeding was begun. In 1914 Prof.Heim set up the first valid breed standard. The original breeding territory was the Appenzell region. Today the breed is distributed all over Switzerland and beyond its borders and bred in many European countries. The notion “Appenzeller Sennenhund” is clearly defined nowadays and the breed, as such, quite distinct from the other Swiss Cattle Dogs. Although the Appenzell Cattle Dog has found many admirers, the breeding stock is still very small. It is only by responsible and careful breeding that it will be possible to establish and consolidate its natural and outstanding hereditary qualities.

GENERAL APPEARANCE : Tricolour, medium-sized, almost squarely built dog, balanced in all parts. Muscular, very agile and deft, with a cheeky expression.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS :

  • Height at withers to length of body = 9 : 10. Rather compact than long.
  • Length of muzzle to length of skull = 4 : 5.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT : Lively, high-spirited, selfassured, reliable and fearless. Slightly suspicious of strangers. A watchdog which cannot be bribed, and capable of learning.

HEAD : Balanced size in relation to body. Slightly wedge-shaped.

CRANIAL REGION :

Skull : Skull fairly flat, broadest between the ears, tapering evenly towards the muzzle. Occiput barely pronounced. Frontal furrow moderately developed.

Stop : Slightly marked.

FACIAL REGION :

Nose : In black dogs black, in havana-brown dogs brown (as dark as possible).

Muzzle : Medium strength, tapering evenly, but not snipy, with strong lower jaw. Nasal bridge straight.

Lips : Clean and close fitting, with black pigmentation in black dogs or with brown pigmentation (as dark as possible) in havana-brown dog. Corner of the mouth not visible.

Jaws/Teeth : Strong, complete and regular scissor bite. Pincer bite tolerated. One missing PM1 or double PM1 (premolar 1) and missing M3 (molars) tolerated.

Cheeks : Barely pronounced.

Eyes : Rather small, almond-shaped, not protruding. Set slightly oblique towards the nose. Expression lively. Colour : in black dogs dark brown, brown; in havana brown dogs lighter brown, but as dark

as possible. Eye-lids close fitting. Eye-rims black respectively brown (as dark as possible) corresponding to the colour of the coat.

Ears : Set on fairly high and broad; in repose hanging down flat and close to cheeks. Triangular shape with tips slightly rounded off. In alertness raised at set-on and turned forward so that the head and ears, seen from above, form a marked triangle.

NECK : Rather short, strong and clean.

BODY : Compact, strong.

Back : Moderately long, firm and straight.

Loins : Short and well muscled.

Croup : Relatively short, running in flat continuation of the topline.

Chest : Broad, deep, reaching to the elbows, with definite forechest.

Sternum reaching sufficiently far back. Ribcage round-oval in diameter.

Underline and Belly : Only slight tuck up.

TAIL : Set on high, strong, of medium length, densely coated. Hair slightly longer on underside. In movement carried tightly curled over the croup, carried sideways or in centre. In repose pendent tail in various shapes tolerated.

LIMBS : Strong and dry bone.

FOREQUARTERS :

General appearance : Well muscled; seen from front forelegs straight and parallel; standing not too close.

Shoulder : Shoulder blade long and sloping.

Upper arm : Same length or only slightly shorter than shoulder blade.

Angle with shoulder blade not too blunt.

Elbows : Close fitting.

Forearm : Straight, lean.

Pastern : Seen from front in straight continuation of the forearm.

Seen from the side, set at a very light angle.

HINDQUARTERS :

General appearance : Well muscled. Seen from rear, hindlegs straight and parallel, standing not too close. The typical angulations result in relatively “steep” hindquarters.

Upper thigh : Fairly long, forming a relatively small angle to the hipbone (coxo-femoral joint).

Lower thigh : Equally long or only slightly shorter than the upper thigh. Lean and well muscled.

Hock joint : Set relatively high.

Hock : Set vertical and parallel, slightly longer than the front pastern, turning neither in nor out. Dewclaws must be removed, except in those countries where their removal is prohibited by law.

FEET : Short, arched, tight toes; solid pads.

GAIT / MOVEMENT : Good rear drive, well reaching stride in front. Seen from either front or rear, limbs move in a straight line when trotting.

COAT

HAIR : Double coat (Stockhaar) : Firm and fitting. Topcoat thick and shiny. Undercoat thick, black, brown or grey. It is undesirable for the undercoat to be visible through the topcoat. Slightly wavy coat only on withers and back just tolerated, but not desirable.

COLOUR AND MARKINGS : Basic colour black or havana brown with reddish-brown and white markings as symmetrical as possible.

Small reddish-brown spots over eyes. Reddish-brown markings on cheeks, chest (left and right in the region of the shoulder-joint) and on legs. The reddish-brown on the latter must invariably be located between the black, resp.havana brown and the white.

White markings :

Distinct white blaze which runs from the skull without break over the bridge of the nose and can reach totally or partially round the muzzle.

White from chin, covering throat without break at chest.

White on all four feet.

White on tip of tail.

White spot on nape of neck or half collar tolerated.

Thin white ring all around neck tolerated but not desirable.

SIZE :

Desired height at withers : Dogs : 52 – 56 cm,

Bitches : 50 – 54 cm.

Tolerance of plus or minus 2 cm.

FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

  • Lack of typical sex-specific appearance.
  • To long or unbalanced in body.
  • Bone fine or too coarse.
  • Insufficient musculature.
  • Very heavy or very light in head.
  • Skull round.
  • Stop too defined.
  • Muzzle too long, too short, narrow or pointed; nasal bridge not straight.
  • Lips too developed.
  • Absence of teeth other than 2 PM1 (premolars 1).
  • Cheeks too prominent.
  • Eyes round, protruding or light.
  • Ears too small, too large, standing off; set on too high or too low.
  • Swayback, roach back.
  • Croup overbuilt or falling away.
  • Belly tucked up.
  • Chest flat or barrel-shaped; lack of forechest; sternum too short.
  • Loosely rolled tail, its tip reaching at least the base of the tail.
  • Insufficient angulation of fore-and hindquarters.
  • Out at elbows.
  • Down on pastern.
  • Cow hocks.

Feet longish-oval (harefeet), splay feet.

  • Incorrect movement, e.g. short, stilted gait, close movement coming and going, crossing etc.
  • Undercoat visible through topcoat.
  • Faults in marking :
  • Black ticks on white.
  • Broken blaze.
  • Broad white collar around the hole neck.
  • Divided white on chest.
  • White reaching distinctly above pastern (“boots”).
  • Absence of white on feet and tip of tail.
  • Over- or undersize regarding tolerance.
  • Insecure behaviour, absence of liveliness, slight sharpness.
  • DISQUALIFYNG FAULTS :
  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural
  • abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Overshot or undershot mouth.
  • Entropion, ectropion.
  • Wall eye.
  • Sickle tail (its tip not reaching the base of the tail), definitely pendent tail; kink tail.
  • Other than double coat (Stockhaar).
  • Other than tricoloured coat.
  • Other than black or havana-brown main colour.
  • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

 

 

Bernese Mountain Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION:
Originally used as a guard, draught and cattle dog on farms in the Canton Bern, today also family dog and versatile working dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
The Bernese Mountain Dog is a farm dog of ancestral origin which was used as a guard and draught dog and for driving cattle in the prealpine regions and in the midland areas around Bern. Originally he was named “Dürrbächler” according to the name of the hamlet and of the inn of Dürrbach, near Riggisberg in the Canton Bern, where these longhaired tricoloured farm dog was especially appreciated. In 1902, 1904 and 1907 specimen of this breed had already been exhibited at dog shows and in 1907 some breeders of the region of Burgdorf decided to promote the pure breeding of these dogs by founding the “Schweizerischer Dürrbach-Klub” and fixing the characteristic traits of the breed.. In 1910, at a show in Burgdorf where many farmers of that region brought their Durrbachler dogs to, already 107 specimen were shown.

From that day onward this dog, renamed “Bernese Mountain Dog” following the example of other breeds of the Swiss Mountain Dogs, became rapidly known all over Switzerland and in the neighbouring parts of Germany. Today the Bernese Mountain Dog is well known and appreciated all over the world as a family dog thanks to its striking tricoloured coat and its great adaptability.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:
Long haired tricoloured, strong and agile working dog, of above medium size, sturdily built limbs, harmonious and well balanced.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:
Height at withers: length of body (measured from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock) = 9:10, rather compact than elongated.

Ideal relation of height at withers: depth of chest = 2:1

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:
Self-confident, attentive, vigilant, fearless in situations of everyday situations, good natured and devoted to his own people, self-assured and placid towards strangers; of medium temperament, docile.
HEAD: Strong in size balanced to general appearance, not too massive.

CRANIAL REGION:
Skull: Viewed from the front and in profile little rounded. Frontal furrow hardly marked.

Stop: Well defined, but without being too pronounced.

FACIAL REGION:
Nose: Black
Muzzle: Strong, of medium length; nasal bridge straight.
Lips: Close fitting; black.
Jaws/Teeth: Strong, complete scissor bite (molars 3 (M3) are not taken into consideration). Pincer bite accepted.
Eyes: Dark brown, almond shaped, with well-fitting eyelids. Neither too deep-set nor prominent. Loose eyelids are faulty.
Ears: Medium sized, set high, triangular in shape, slightly rounded at the tips in repose hanging flat and close to the head. When alert, the rear part of the set-on is raised while the front edge of the ear remains close to the head.

NECK: Strong, muscular, of medium length.

BODY:
Topline: From the neck running slightly downwards to the withers in a harmonious line, then running on straight and level.
Back: Firm, straight and level.
Loins: Broad and strong; seen from above slightly less broad than the chest.
Croup: Slightly rounded.

Chest: Broad and deep, reaching to the elbows; forechest distinctly developed; ribcage of wide-oval section extending as well back as possible.
Underline/Belly: Slightly rising from chest to hindquarters.

Tail: Bushy, reaching at least to the hocks; hanging straight down when at rest; carried level with back or slightly above when moving.

LIMBS:
Strong bones.

FOREQUARTERS:
General appearance: Forelegs standing rather wide apart, straight and parallel.
Shoulders: Shoulder-blades long, strong and well laid back, forming a not too obtuse angle with the upper arm, well attached to the chest, well muscled.

Upper arm: Long, set oblique.

Elbows: Close fitting; neither turned in nor out.

Forearm: Strong, straight.
Pasterns: Seen from the side almost upright, firm; seen from the front in straight line with the forearm.
Forefeet: Short, roundish; with well-knit, well arched toes. Turned neither in nor out.

HINDQUARTERS:
General appearance: Seen from the rear straight and parallel, not too close.
Upper Thigh: Long, broad, strong and well muscled.
Hocks joint: Strong, well angulated.

Metatarsus: Set almost vertically. Dewclaws to be removed (except in those countries where is is prohibited by law)

Hind feet: Slightly less arched than forefeet, turned neither in nor out.

GAIT/MOVEMENT:
Sound and balanced movement in all gaits, covering a lot of ground; free stride reaching well out in front, with plenty of drive from behind; at the trot, coming and going, legs moving forward in a straight line.

COAT
Hair: Long, shining, smooth or slightly wavy.

Colour: Jet black with rich tan markings on cheeks, over the eyes, on all four legs and on the chest, and with white markings as follows :
Clean white symmetrical markings on the head : blaze extending towards the nose on both sides to a muzzle band; the blaze should not reach the tan markings above the eyes, and the white muzzle band should not extend beyond the corners of the mouth,
Moderately large, unbroken white markings on throat and chest,
Desirable : white feet
: white tip of tail
Tolerated : small white patch on nape of neck
: small white anal patch.

SIZE:
Height at withers: dogs: 64-70 cms at withers, ideal size 66-68 cms.
bitches: 58-66 cms at withers, ideal size 60-63 cms.

FAULTS:
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault: and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

Unsure Behaviour
Fine bones structure

Irregular set of the incisors provided that the bite remains correct.

Absence of any other than 2 PM1 (premolar 1); the M3 (molars 3) are not taken into consideration

Coat:

Distinctly curly coat

Faults of colour and markings:
Absence of white on head
Blaze too large and/or muzzle band reaching noticeably beyond the corners of the mouth.

White collar
Large white patch on nape of neck (maximum diameter more than 6cm)

White anal patch (maximum size 6cm).
White markings on forelegs reaching distinctly beyond halfway of pasterns (“boots”)
Disturbingly asymmetrical white markings on head and/or chest
Black ticks and stripes within the white on the chest
“Dirty” white (strong spots of pigmentation)
Black coat with a touch of brown or red

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:
Aggressive, anxious or distinctly shy.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Split nose

Undershot or overshot, wry mouth.
One or two blue eyes (wall eye)

Entropion, ectropion.

Kinky tail, ring tail.
Short coat, double coat (Stockhaar)
Other than tricoloured coat
Other main colour than black.

NB:
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

                                                                                                     

Boerboel

Posted in Working Group

 

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

PREAMBLE
Historically the Boerboel developed as a general farm dog for the pioneers who settled in South Africa since the seventeenth century. These dogs often were a first line of defence against predators and were valuable in tracking and holding down wounded game. Old farmers told many a tale of the strength, agility and courage of the Boerboel. The dangers and harsh conditions of southern Africa allowed only the fittest to survive.

The protective character of the Boerboel is today still evident and is much sought after, as is the calm, stable and confident composure of the breed. It remains the guarding breed of choice amongst current day farmers and is also very popular for the same reason in the urban communities.

The origin and purpose of the Boerboel should be understood in order to preserve the unique identity and qualities of the breed as a South African developed mastiff. Type, conformation, functional efficiency and mentality are equally important in the evaluation of the Boerboel as a whole. The aim with the Breed Standard is to provide clear guidelines for breeders and judges to promote a singular vision of the ideal Boerboel.

BREED STANDARD
1. GENERAL APPEARANCE

The Boerboel

Is large, with a strong-boned structure and a well-developed musculature. The profile of the head and body appears blocky
Has an impressive demeanor created by the combination of conformation, carriage, confidence and powerful movement
Has powerful, buoyant and unencumbered movement, notwithstanding its size
Is symmetrical and perfectly balanced within the desired proportions for the breed
Has a distinct sexual dimorphism, with the bitch less prominently developed

2. TEMPERAMENT AND CHARACTER

The Boerboel
Is intelligent, trainable and manageable
Has a strong protective instinct and is loyal to members of the family
Is steadfast and calm, with a balanced and confident nature when approached
Is fearless and shows courage when threatened
Requires training and firm handling from an early age

3. HEAD
The head is impressive and a distinctive feature of the Boerboel
It is blocky, broad, deep, fairly short and in proportion to the body

It is muscular with well-filled cheeks

The roof of the cranium (skull) is square, flat and muscular

The zygomatic arch (cheek bone) is well muscled, but not too prominent

3. HEAD (Cont’d)

The stop is definite, but not prominent gradually sloping and well filled between the eyes. It should not be steep, or an almost straight line between the nose and the occciput.
The muzzle is broad, deep, well attached, filled below the eyes and narrows slightly towards the nose. The top line is straight and almost on a parallel plane with the cranial roof.
The muzzle measures slightly more than a third of the total length of the head (approx. 10cm for the male and 8cm for the female of ideal height).

The nostrils are large and widely spaced, with the septum (vertical line) of the nose perpendicular to the lower jaw.
The jaws are strong, deep and wide, and taper slightly to the front.
The teeth are white, strong, correctly spaced with complete dentition and a scissors bite (limited undershot discriminated against; overshot unacceptable)
The upper lip is loose and fleshy. It just covers the lower lip and teeth in the front but should not hide the underline of the lower jaw on the sides.
The lower lip is moderately tight without excessive jowls.
The eyes are medium sized, round, forward facing and widely spaced, with an intelligent expression. It is well protected against the environment by firm and black-pigmented eyelids, showing no structural weaknesses. The colour
The ears are set wide and high and are carried close to the head. They are V-shaped with a broad base tapering to a rounded point that reaches almost down to a line extending from the mouth. When the dog is attentive the top of the ears and the skull, in between, should form a straight line.
The facial expression should be intelligent, attentive and confident (not evasive, shy or threatening).

4. THE NECK

The neck is powerful, of medium length, strong muscled and with a pronounced crest. (In the female the muscles are less accentuated but should remain in balance with the head and body)
It is set medium high, flows smoothly into the sloping withers and forms a unit with the head and shoulders.
The dewlap is noticeable but disappears towards the sternum

5. THE BODY

The body is approximately 15% longer than the height and is measured horizontally, from the point of the shoulder to a vertical line at the rear of the rump. (The length of the chest, loin and rump is approximately proportioned 2:1:1)
It is blocky, muscular, solid and has good depth and width
The back is broad and straight, with pronounced muscles that form an imperceptible arch in the top line over the lumber region.
The brisket reaches down to the point of the elbow, which is approximately half the total height at the withers.
The transitions between the chest, loin and rump are well filled and flowing.

6. CHEST

The chest is long, broad and deep, with well-sprung ribs and strong developed pectoral muscles. It is filled behind the shoulder blades.
The point of the sternum is level with the point of the shoulder
The shoulder blades should be well-attached (not loose)

7. THE LUMBER REGION, LOIN

It is short, straight and muscular, and slightly narrower than the chest and rump
The flanks are well filled, only moderately tucked up and the depth is slightly less than the length of the loin.

8. THE RUMP, CROUP

The rump is broad, strong, muscular and in proportion to the rest of the dog.
Its height should not exceed the height at the withers. The top line drops slightly towards the tail.
The croup is broad and flat to provide a fulcrum (axel) towards powerful reach of the hind legs
The tail is thick and set fairly high. It should be well covered with hair and without kink.
Tails are traditionally docked but undocked tails are acceptable. Docking takes place at the 3rd or 4th caudal vertebrae. The natural tail should reach approximately to the hocks when the dog is standing.

[*refer note below]

9. LEGS AND FEET

Weak and malformed limbs jeopardise the physical functionality that is required of the Boerboel and should be discriminated against.

10. THE FORELIMBS

Are strong boned, with well-defined muscles and sturdy joints.
Should be correctly angulated from the well-sloped shoulder blade down to the metacarpus (pastern).
Should form a vertical line from the point of the shoulder down to the paws, with the elbows held close and parallel to the chest when viewed from the front
Seen from the side the forearm should be vertical from the elbow to the carpus. The metacarpus is short, thick and strong and angles very slightly forward
The forepaws point straight forward, are large, round, strongly boned and compact. The toes are well arched, with curved black toenails and protected by hair in between. The pads are thick, tough and black.

11. THE HINDLIMBS

Are strong boned, sturdy and muscular
The joints should be sound, strong and correctly angulated to support the powerful propulsion from the hindquarters during movement
The upper thighs are broad, deep and muscular as seen from the side and the rear
The lower thighs have well defined muscles and show substance down to the hocks
The metatarsus is broad, relatively short and perfectly upright. The front is in a vertical line with the rear of the rump.
From the rear the profile of the hindquarters should form an inverted U, with the stifles pointing straight forward and the hocks straight backwards.
The hind paws point straight forward, are slightly smaller than the forepaws but have the same quality.

12. MOVEMENT

The movement is strong, purposeful, buoyant and fluent, with comfortable reach in front and rear
The legs and body should move in line front to rear. The feet moves closer to a center line as speed increases, forming a V shape in the observers mind.
Whilst converging towards the center line of travel, the legs should never cross.
At all gaits the top line is firm and strong, without swaying, or dipping in the middle, and without excess body roll.
Weak, unsound or plodding movement should not be tolerated.

13. THE SKIN

The skin is thick and loose but fits smoothly
A small dewlap is permissible and moderate wrinkles over the forehead when the dog shows interest.

14. PIGMENTATION

The Boerboel is well pigmented, especially on the lips, palate, the skin and hair around the eyes, nose bulb, paw pads, toenails, the anus and the skin and hair around the genitals.
Only dogs with black eumelanin pigmentation are acceptable.

15. THE COAT AND COLOUR

The coat is short, dense, smooth and shiny
The recognised colours / colour patterns are (with or without a mask):
All shades of red, brown, yellow (fawn)

Brindle:

Brindle is a colour pattern with irregular vertical lines of only black hair on red, brown or yellow base
Irish markings are permissible to breed with, but should be discriminated against in the show ring.
All these colours and colour patterns should be accompanied by good pigmentation.

No other colours or colour patterns and tan markings are acceptable.

16. SIZE

Is determined by the ideal height at the withers and desirable ratios between the height and the measurements of the various parts of the external anatomy
The ideal height for a dog is 66cm (lower than 60 cm is unacceptable)

The ideal height of a bitch is 61cm (lower than 55 cm is unacceptable)

17. GENITALS

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
FAULTS

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in direct proportion to its degree.

DISQUALIFICATIONS
1. A dog that is too small (Smaller than the minimum heights stipulated in the Breed Standard).

2. A dog that is too big and out of balance.

3. An overly aggressive dog.

4. A too small and untypical head.

5. A lack of pigmentation.

6. Excessively undershot bite.

7. Excessively overshot bite.

8. Blue eyes.

9. Pricked ears.

10. A piebald or black dog.

11. Any dog clearly showing any physical or behavioural abnormalities.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked or formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either. (Fedco 12/2017 Amended DR/02/2018)

                                                                            

Boxer

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION

Companion, Guard and Working Dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

The small, so called Brabant Bullenbeisser is regarded as the immediate ancestor of the Boxer. In the past, the breeding of these Bullenbeissers was in the hands of the huntsmen, whom they assisted during the hunt. Their task was to seize the game put up by the hounds and hold it firmly until the huntsman arrived and put an end to the prey. For this job the dog had to have jaws as wide as possible with widely spaced teeth, in order to bite firmly and hold on tightly. A Bullenbeisser which had these characteristics was best suited to this job and was used for breeding. Previously, only the ability to work and utilization were

considered. Selective breeding was carried out which produced a dog with a wide muzzle and an upturned nose.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

The Boxer is a medium sized, smooth coated, sturdy dog of compact, square build and strong bone.

His muscles are taut, strongly developed and moulded in appearance.

His movement is lively, powerful with noble bearing. The Boxer must be neither cumbersome nor heavy, nor light or lacking in body substance.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

a) Length of body / Height at withers: Square build, which means that the horizontal line of the back is perpendicular to the vertical line passing through the point of shoulder and to the other vertical line passing through the point of buttock, thus defining a square outline.

b) Depth of brisket / Height at withers: The chest reaches to the elbows. Depth of chest is half the height at withers.

c) Length of nose bridge / Length of head: Length of nose bridge in relation to skull should be 1: 2 (measured respectively from tip of nose to inner corner of eye and from inner corner of eye to occiput).

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

The Boxer should be fearless self-confident, calm and equable. Temperament is of the utmost importance and requires careful attention. Devotion and loyalty towards his master and his entire household, his watchfulness and self-assured courage as a defender are famous. He is harmless with his family but distrustful of strangers. Happy and friendly in play, yet fearless in a serious situation. Easy to train on account of his willingness to obey, his pluck and courage, natural keenness and scent capability. Undemanding and clean, he is just as agreeable and appreciated in the family circle as he is as a guard, companion and working dog. His character is trustworthy, with no guile or cunning, even in old age.

HEAD

This gives the Boxer his characteristic look. Must be in good proportion to the body and appear neither too light nor too heavy. Muzzle should be as broad and powerful as possible. The harmony of the head depends on the balance between muzzle and skull.

From whichever direction the head is viewed, from front, above or sideways, the muzzle must always be in the right proportion to the skull i.e. it must never appear too small. It should be clean, not showing any wrinkle.   However, natural folds are formed in the cranial region when alerted. From root of nose, folds are always

indicated running in a downward direction on both sides. The dark mask is confined to the muzzle and must be in sharp contrast to the colour of the head so that the face does not appear sombre.

CRANIAL REGION

Skull: The cranial region should be as lean and angular as possible.

It is slightly arched, neither too round and short, nor flat; nor should it be too broad. Occiput not too pronounced. Furrow in forehead only slightly marked, must not be too deep, especially between the eyes.

Stop: The forehead forms a distinct stop with the bridge of nose. Bridge of nose must not be forced back into the forehead as in the Bulldog, nor should it be downfaced.

FACIAL REGION

Nose: Nose is broad and black and only slightly turned up with wide nostrils. Tip of nose is placed slightly higher than root of nose.

Muzzle: The muzzle is powerfully developed in three dimensional volume, neither pointed nor narrow, nor short or shallow. Its appearance is influenced by:  a) Shape of jaw. b) Position of canine teeth. c) Shape of lips. The

canines must be placed as far apart as possible and must be of good length, making the front of the muzzle broad, almost square and forming a blunt angle with bridge of nose.

In front, the edge of the upper lip rests on the edge of the lower lip.

The part of the lower jaw with lower lip curved upwards, called the chin, must not markedly protrude over upper lip, seen from front.

Nor should it be hidden by the upper lip but should be well defined from front and side. The canines and incisors of the lower jaw must not be visible when mouth is closed, neither should the tongue show. Median groove in the upper lip (philtrum) is clearly visible.

Lips: The lips complete the shape of the muzzle. The upper lip is thick and padded and fills the space formed by the undershot lower jaw; it is supported by the lower canines.

Jaws/Teeth: The lower jaw protrudes beyond the upper jaw and is curved slightly upwards. The Boxer is undershot. The upper jaw is broad where it joins the cranial region, tapering only slightly towards

the front. The teeth are strong and healthy. The incisors are as even as possible, set in a straight line. Canines wide apart and of good size.

Cheeks: Cheeks are developed in proportion with the strong jaws without markedly bulging. They merge with the muzzle in a slight curve.

Eyes: The dark eyes are neither too small nor protruding or deep set.

Their expression conveys energy and intelligence and must not be threatening or piercing. Eye rims must be dark.

Ears: The natural ears are of appropriate size. They are set on wide apart on highest part of skull. In repose they lie close to the cheeks and turn forward with a definite crease, especially when the dog is alert.

NECK

Topline runs in an elegant arch from the clearly marked nape to the withers. It should be of ample length, round, strong and muscular.

BODY

Square body resting on sturdy, straight legs.

Withers: Should be marked.

Back: Including loin should be short, firm, straight, broad and muscular.

Croup: Slightly sloping, broad and only slightly arched. Pelvis should be long and broad, especially in bitches.

Chest: Deep, reaching to elbows. Depth of chest is half the height at

withers. Well developed forechest. Ribs well sprung but not barrelshaped, extending well to the rear.

Underline: Running towards rear in elegant curve. Short, taut flanks slightly tucked up.

TAIL

Set on high rather than low. The tail is of normal length and left natural.

[*refer note below]

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS

General appearance: Front legs, seen from front, must stand parallel and have strong bone.

Shoulders: Long and sloping, connected firmly to body. Should not be too loaded.

Upper arm: Long, making a right angle to shoulder blade.

Elbows: Neither too close to side of chest nor turned out.

Forearm: Vertical, long, lean and muscled.

Carpus (wrist): Strong, well defined, but not exaggerated.

Metacarpus (Pastern): Short, almost perpendicular to ground.

Front feet: Small, round, tight, well cushioned and hard pads.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Very muscular, the muscles brick hard and visible under the skin.

Hindlegs: Seen from rear: straight.

Thigh: Long and broad. Angles of hip and knee are open but as little as possible.

Knee (Stifle): When dog is standing, should reach sufficiently forward so that it would touch a perpendicular line from point of hip to ground.

Lower thigh: Very muscular.

Hock: Strong and well defined but not exaggerated. Angle approximately 140 degrees.

Metatarsus (Rear Pastern): Short with slight inclination, 95-100 degrees to the ground.

Hind feet: Slightly longer than front feet, tight; well cushioned and hard pads.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

Lively, full of strength and nobility.

SKIN

Dry, elastic without any wrinkles.

COAT

HAIR: Short, hard, glossy and close fitting.

COLOUR: Fawn or brindle: Fawn comes in various shades from light fawn to dark deer red but the most attractive shades are in the middle range (red fawn). Black mask.

The brindle variety: fawn background of varying shades has dark or black stripes running parallel to ribs. Stripes must contrast distinctly to ground colour.

White markings should not be discarded. They can be quite pleasant.

SIZE AND WEIGHT

Height at the withers: Dogs: 57-63 cm.

Females: 53-59 cm.

Weight: Dogs: over 30 kg when height at withers is ca 60 cm.

Bitches: about 25 kg when height at withers is ca 56 cm.

FAULTS

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

· Behaviour / Temperament: Lack of spirit.

· Head: Lack of nobility and typical expression, sombre face, Pinscher or Bulldog type head. Dribbling

, showing of teeth or tongue. Muzzle too pointed or slight. Bridge of nose falling away. Leather or

  weather nose, pale nose leather. So called, “hawk eye”, lack of pigment in haw.

  In uncropped ears: Flying, half erect or erect ears, rose ears.

  Wry jaw, slanting teeth, incorrect position of teeth, poorly developed teeth and unsound teeth due

  to illness.

· Neck: Short, thick and throaty.

· Body: Front too broad or low to the ground. Sagging body, roach or sway back. Lean, long, narrow,

  sagging loin, loosely coupled body. 

  Arched loin, croup falling away. Narrow pelvis, hollow flanks, pendulous belly.

· Tail: Low set on, kink tail                             

· Forequarters: French front, loose shoulders, loose elbows, weak pastern, hare foot, flat, splayed

  feet.

· Hindquarters: Weak muscles. Too much or too little angulation, down on hocks, barrel hocks, cow

  hocks, narrow hocks, dewclaws, hare foot, flat, splayed feet.

 · Movement: Waddling, insufficient reach, pacing, stilted gait.

· Colour of coat: Mask extending beyond muzzle. Stripes (brindling) too close together or too sparse.

  Sooty ground colour. Mingled colours. Unattractive white markings such as a entirely white head or white on one side of the head. Other colours and white markings exceeding one third of the ground colour.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

· Aggressive or overly shy.

· Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

N.B

· Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

· Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked and formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either.

*********************************************************************

QUALIFICATIONS FOR ADVANCED REGISTRATION CERTIFICATE

Before submitting any application the following requirements must have been fulfilled.

  1. Must be on the Kennel Union Breed Register
  2. Be positively identified by microchip or DNA
  3. Be over twenty four (24) months of age
  4. Be a Kennel Union Breed (Conformation) Champion
  5. The registered name of the dog must contain an Affix (Kennel name)
    1. The dog must have passed a FBCSA BC Breed Assessment / Breed Survey
    2. The dog must have passed an Aptitude Test
  6. Hip score must not be worse than C2

Amendment to ARC, Fedco 06-2019 (P.M 01.08.2019) 

Bullmastiff

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

GENERAL APPEARANCE
Powerful build, symmetrical, showing great strength, but not cumbersome, sound and active.

CHARACTERISTICS
Powerful, enduring, active and reliable.

TEMPERAMENT
High-spirited, alert and faithful. 

HEAD AND SKULL
Skull large and square, viewed from every angle, fair wrinkle when interested but not when in repose. Skull broad and deep with well filled cheeks. Pronounced stop. Muzzle short; distance from tip of nose to stop approximately one-third length from tip of nose to centre of occiput, broad under eyes and sustaining nearly same width to end of nose; blunt and cut off square, forming right angle with upper line of face, and at same time proportionate with skull. Under-jaw broad to end. Nose broad with widely spreading nostrils; flat, neither pointed nor turned up in profile. Flews not pendulous, never hanging below level of lower jaw.

EYES
Dark or hazel, of medium size, set apart the width of muzzle with furrow between. Light or yellow eyes highly undesirable.

EARS
V-shaped, folded forward, set on wide and high, level of occiput giving square appearance to skull which is most important. Small and deeper in colour than body. Point of ear level with eye when alert. Rose ears highly undesirable.

MOUTH
Level desired but slightly undershot allowed but not preferred. Canine teeth large and set wide apart, other teeth strong, even and well placed. 

NECK
Well arched. Moderate length, very muscular and almost equal to skull in circumference. 

FOREQUARTERS
Chest wide and deep, well let down between forelegs, with deep brisket. Shoulders muscular, sloping and powerful, not overloaded. Forelegs powerful and straight, well boned, set wide apart, presenting a straight front. Pasterns straight and strong.

BODY
Back short and straight, giving compact carriage, but not so short as to interfere with activity. Roach and sway backs highly undesirable.

HINDQUARTERS
Loins wide and muscular, with fair depth of flank. Hindlegs strong and muscular with well developed second thighs, denoting power and activity, not cumbersome. Hocks moderately bent. Cowhocks highly undesirable.

FEET
Well arched, cat-like, with rounded toes, pads hard. Dark toenails desirable. Splayed feet highly undesirable.

TAIL
Set high, strong at root and tapering, reaching to hocks, carried straight or curved, but not hound-fashion. Crank tails highly undesirable.

GAIT/MOVEMENT
Movement indicates power and sense of purpose. When moving straight neither front nor hindlegs should cross or plait, right front and left rear leg rising and falling at same time. A firm backline unimpaired by powerful thrust from hindlegs denoting a balanced and harmonious movement.

COAT
Short and hard, weather-resistant, lying flat to body. Long, silky or woolly coats highly undesirable.

COLOUR
Any shade of brindle, fawn or red; colour to be pure and clear. A slight white marking on chest permissible. Other white markings undesirable. Black muzzle essential, toning off towards eyes, with dark markings around eyes contributing to expression.

SIZE
Height at shoulder : Dogs: 64 - 69 cm (25-27 in): Bitches: 61 - 66 cm (24-26 in)
Weight : Dogs: 50-59 kg (110-130 lb): Bitches: 41-50 kg (90-110 lb)

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

NOTE
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
                                                           

Canadian Eskimo Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION: For centuries this breed was used as a draught animal and was capable of pulling between 45 and 80 kg. per dog, covering distances from 15 to 70 miles per day. He was also used as a hunting dog, to locate seal breathing holes for the Inuit hunters. As a hunting dog he would also attack and hold at bay musk ox and polar bear for the Inuit hunters. In the summer the dog was used as a pack dog carrying up to 15 kg. Without working trial.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: The breed has an 1100 to 2000 year history of being interdependent with the Thule culture of Inuit (Eskimo people) who, following the Dorset culture, occupied the coastal and archipelago area of what is now Arctic Canada. Although within the spitz family of dogs, the Canadian Eskimo Dog’s origin prior to this is lost in the Inuit prehistory which includes the migration of the Mongolian race from the Asian continent to North America. The existing strain of Canadian Eskimo Dog originated from stock primarily bred by the Eskimo Dog Research Foundation in the Northwest Territories. The foundation’s work over a six-year period was primarily funded by the Governments of Canada and the Northwest Territories and involved the purchase of specimens from the remnant population of dogs kept by the Inuit of the Boothia Peninsula, Melville Peninsula and parts of Baffin Island. The Canadian Eskimo Dog, as a primitive dog, is primarily a carnivorous breed, whose natural diet consisted of seal, walrus, fish, or caribou.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: The Canadian Eskimo Dog is a powerfully built, moderately sized dog with a thick neck and chest and medium length legs. Typical of the spitz family of dogs he has a wedge-shaped head held high with thick erect ears. The eyes are obliquely set giving a serious appearance. The dog has a bushy tail carried up or curled over the back. Of almost equal height at the hips as at the withers, medium to large boned and well muscled the dog displays a majestic and powerful physique giving the impression that he is not built for speed but rather for hard work. Above all the body should be muscled and not fat. Females will have a smaller and less muscled body than the males. During the winter the body is thickly clothed with an outer coat of straight or erect hair; below is dense underfur which enables the animal to easily withstand the rigours of high latitudes. A mane-like growth of longer hair over the neck and shoulder will appear on male specimens. The whole conformation of the Canadian Eskimo Dog should be one of strength, power and endurance balanced with agility, alertness and boldness. The female of the breed will usually have a shorter coat than the male and will always be significantly smaller than the male. As young bitches, they will be finer boned giving among other things a narrower head which tends to produce a friendlier looking face than with males. Both males and females of the breed are known to have a rapid growth rate reaching working size around seven months. However, the maturing process extends to at least three years of age giving them a very majestic appearance. Puppies have often been described as miniature adults, with erect ears and a curly tail at the young ages between three to five weeks. There may be occasional periods during adolescent growth stages when the ears may not be fully erect but it is important to note that the ears of the Canadian Eskimo Dog do not have the same gradual growth of becoming erect around four months of age as is seen in some other breeds.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: Width of the forehead between the ears on the males will be from 5-6 inches (13-15 cm). On the females the distance will be from 4-1/2 -5-1/2 inches (11-14 cm).

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT: The temperament of the Canadian Eskimo Dog should reflect the tough, hard-working breed that he is. He is not to be viewed as a domestic pet but rather as a primitive dog originally domesticated by Inuit for specific tasks in a harsh arctic environment. In general disposition, the mature Canadian Eskimo Dog is gentle and affectionate with the average individual, enjoying attention. Even with total strangers the dogs are rarely standoffish. Usually they will exhibit a rather quiet friendliness and harmless curiosity or become completely distant. The dog is very pack oriented and if raised as a group, dominant and subordinate roles will be acted out under the leadership of a totally dominant or boss dog. Behaviour within a group or pack is usually well structured and controlled but it is not uncommon to see battle scars or torn ears on dogs originating from kennel areas where the dogs are raised in groups or packs. Compared to modern domestic breeds, the Canadian Eskimo Dog has an almost over response to any stimulus whether it be food, work, defense or play. For this reason, the dog should be a companion for adults and is not to be considered a child’s pet.

HEAD

CRANIAL REGION: Skull: Massive but well-proportioned being broad and wedge-shaped. Although often described as wolf-like in appearance the head of the Canadian Eskimo Dog has a more elevated forehead. Immature females will have a much narrower skull than the male.

FACIAL REGION: Nose: Pigmentation of the nose will vary from black to light brown (especially on lighter coloured dogs with red, buff, or cinnamon on the body). Butterfly noses have, on occasion appeared with the light brown nose.

Muzzle: Tapered and of medium length.

Lips: Black or brown with pink.

Jaws/Teeth: The jaws are heavy and powerful possessing large teeth with well-developed canine teeth. The incisors meet in a scissor bite.

Eyes: Generally dark-coloured but hazel or yellow-coloured eyes will appear in the breed. They are small, wide spaced and placed obliquely in the head which tends to impart much more of a wild and deceitful appearance than the dog deserves.

Ears: Short, thick and have slightly rounded ends. They are carried erect, turned forwards and are covered with dense short hair.

NECK: Short, straight, thick, and very muscular.

BODY: Of almost equal height at the hips as at the withers.

Back: The spinal column when felt through the furred body is well pronounced.

Loin: Well-developed.

Chest: Deep, wide and well-muscled.

Underline and belly: There is very little curve to the flank.

TAIL: Large and bushy and generally carried up or curled over the back. Mature bitches may on occasion carry their tails down.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS: Shoulder: Broad, obliquely set with moderate muscling.

Forearm: Straight but may give the appearance of being bowed, because of the well-developed triceps muscle above and behind the elbow and the pronounced muscle on the forearm itself.

Forefeet: Large, nearly round, well arched with thick pads being well furred between; however, under extremely cold winter conditions, this fur will grow to be very long so as to cover the bottom of the pads.

HINDQUARTERS: General appearance: The hips may appear as pronounced and bony as the spine, and are about the same height as the withers.

Thigh: The legs will be very muscular with the width of the thigh being carried well down towards the hock.

Stifle (Knee): Well bent.

Hind feet: Similar in design to the front but slightly longer. From the rear, the legs will appear straight with the hocks turning neither in nor out.

GAIT / MOVEMENT: The working gait of this dog is a powerful and brisk trot with the rear legs moving in line with the front legs in the force motion but showing some abduction during the forward movement of the stride. This may be especially pronounced in mature male dogs with many miles in harness. This gait may appear awkward to the untrained eye but is a result of a wide stance caused by well-developed thighs. This particular gait is a well-balanced efficient stride for heavy pulling day after day. The movement of the dog should in no way appear as a choppy or paddling motion. The females are much faster and freer in movement than the heavier males and are capable of breaking stride from the natural trot and running or galloping for much longer distances than the males.

SKIN: Should feel thick and tough.

COAT

Hair: Subject to an annual moult usually in August or September, the coat is thick and dense with guard hairs being hard and stiff. This outer coat will vary from 3-6 inches (7-15 cm) in length. In males it will occur in a mane-like growth over the shoulder and neck making the male appear much larger in size and taller at the withers than he actually is. The undercoat is very dense to give excellent protection during the most extreme winter conditions. During the moult this underfur will come loose in clumps over a period of a few days. Females will usually have a shorter coat overall partially because of the additional moult that will occur following the birth of pups.

Colour: No one colour or colour pattern should dominate the breed with the colour and colour patterns of the Canadian Eskimo Dog ranging from:

(a) An all white body with pigmentation around the eyes, nose and lips (e.g. not albino).

(b) White body with only the smallest amount of red, buff

(including cinnamon shades), grey or black around the ears or eyes.

(c) White bodies with either red, buff, cinnamon, grey, or black head marks around ears and eyes or the entire head and the occasional small patch of the same colour on the body usually around the hip or flank.

(d) Red and white, or buff and white, or cinnamon and white or black and white with about 50/50 distribution of the two colours, on various parts of the body.

(e) Red body or buff body or cinnamon body with white on chest and/or legs and underside of body.

(f) Sable or black body or dark grey body with white on chest and/or legs and underside of body occasionally extending around part of the neck in a collar-like fashion.

(g) Silver grey or greyish white body.

(h) Buff to brown undercoat with black guard hairs. Very common to dogs with solid colour to most of the head is a mask-like shading of white around the eyes and/or muzzle with or without white spots over the eyes. On very rare occasions the spots over the eyes as well as cheek-marks will be buff coloured thus adding a third colour to a normally two-coloured animal.

SIZE AND WEIGHT:

Height at the withers: Males: 58-70 cm Females: 50-60 cm Weight: Males: 30-40 kg Females: 18-30 kg

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog (and its ability to perform its traditional work).

SEVERE FAULTS:

  • Head: Square muzzle or loose lips, round or bulging eyes.
  • Neck: Long and thin.
  • Body: Narrow chest, over-all lack of muscle, excess fat, sloping back, coarseness or lack of finer bones in   bitches.
  • Legs: thin, fine boned or cow hocked.
  • Feet: Flat or open.
  • Coat: Short, off prime.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Blue eyes.
  • Floppy ears, the exception being battle torn ears.
  • Clipping or altering the coat by scissoring.
  • No evidence at all of a curled or upright tail in male dogs (recognizing that a tail may occasionally be kept down as a sign of subordination or stress).
  • Excessive undershot or overshot jaw.

N.B.:

  • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation, should be used for breeding.

Cane Corso Italiano

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION:

Utility dog, polyvalent.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

Its direct ancestor is the old Roman Molossian. Formerly scattered all over Italy, in the recent past, the breed was only prevalent in the Province Apulia and in the adjacent regions of Southern Italy. His name derives from the Latin «cohors», which means «protector, guardian of the farmyard».

GENERAL APPEARANCE: Medium to large sized. Robust and sturdy dog, nevertheless with some elegance. Lean and, powerful muscles.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

The dog is rectangular in outline and is slightly longer than tall. (The length of the dog is 11% greater than the height of the dog). The length of the head reaches 36 % of the height at the withers.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT:

Guardian of property, family and livestock; extremely agile and responsive. In the past, it has been used for herding cattle and hunting big game.

HEAD:

Large and typically molossoid. The upper longitudinal axes of the skull and the muzzle are slightly convergent, without evident wrinkles.

CRANIAL REGION:
Skull: Broad at the zygomatic arches the width is equal to the length. Convex in front, it becomes flat behind the forehead as far as the occiput. The medio-frontal furrow is visible, beginning at the stop and ending at about the middle of the skull.
Stop: Well defined, with prominent frontal sinuses.

FACIAL REGION
Nose: Black. A grey mask may have a nose colour of the same nuance. Large nose with ample open nostrils. Nose placed on the same line as the nasal bridge.
Muzzle: Strong, square, noticeably shorter than the skull, ratio muzzle: skull approximately 1 : 2. The front part of the muzzle is flat; the lateral surfaces are parallel; the muzzle is as broad as it is long. Seen from the side it is deep. The profile of the nasal bridge is straight.
Lips: The upper lips; seen from the front, form an inverted ”U” at their meeting point; seen from the side hangs moderately. They cover the lower jaw and determine the profile of the lower part of the muzzle.
Jaws/Teeth: Jaws are very large thick and curved. Slightly undershot but no more than 5 mm. Level bite tolerable but not sought after.
Cheeks: The masseter region is fully evident, but not bulging.
Eyes: Medium-sized, slightly protruding, but never exaggerated. Close to ovoid in shape, set well apart in an almost sub-frontal position. Eyelids close fitting. The colour of the iris is as dark as possible but according to the coat colour. Expression is keen and attentive.
Ears: Triangular, drooping, of medium size. With a wide set-on that is much above the zygomatic arches. Ears are un-cropped.

NECK:

Strong, muscular, as long as the head.

BODY:

The body is somewhat longer than the height at the withers. Sturdily built, but not square.
Withers: Pronounced, rising above the level of the croup.
Back: Straight, very muscular and firm.
Loins: Short and strong.
Croup: Long, and wide, slightly inclined.
Chest: Well developed all through reaches to the elbow.

TAIL:
Natural. Set on fairly high; very broad at the root. In action carried high, but never erect or curled.

[*refer note below]

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS:
Shoulders: Long, oblique, very muscular.
Upper arm: Strong.
Forearm: Straight, very strong.
Carpus (Wrist): Elastic.
Metacarpus (pastern): Elastic and just slightly sloping.
Forefeet: Cat feet.

HINDQUARTERS:
Thigh: Long, broad, back line of thigh convex.
Lower thigh: Strong, not fleshy.
Stifle (Knee): Solid, moderately angulated.
Hocks Joint: Moderately angulated.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Thick and dry.
Hindfeet: Slightly less compact than the forefeet.

GAIT / MOVEMENT:

Long stride, extended trot. The preferred gait is the trot.

SKIN:

Fairly thick, rather close fitting.

COAT
HAIR: Short, shiny, very dense with a slight undercoat of vitreous texture.

COLOUR:

Black, lead-grey, slate-grey, light grey, light fawn; dark fawn and stag red; dark wheat colour (stripes on different shades of fawn or grey); in fawn coloured and brindle dogs the black or grey mask on the muzzle should not go beyond the line of the eyes. A small white patch on the chest, on the tip of the toes and on the bridge of the nose is acceptable.

SIZE AND WEIGHT
Height at withers: Males: 64cm – 68cm.
                           Females: 60cm – 64cm.
With a tolerance of 2cm, more or less taller.
Weight: Males: 45 – 50kg.
             Females: 40 – 45kg.
Weight according to the size of dog.

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional work.

SEVERE FAULTS
• Axes of muzzle and skull parallel or very marked converging; lateral surfaces of the muzzle converging.
• Partial depigmentation of the nose.
• Scissor bite; undershot bite more than 5 mm.
• Ringed tail, tail in vertical position.
• Permanent amble when trotting.
• Over-or undersize.

Presence of dewclaws

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS
• Aggressive or overly shy.
• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• Axes of muzzle and skull diverging.
• Total depigmentation of the nose.
• Bridge of nose concave or convex (Roman nose).
• Overshot mouth.
• Partial or complete palpebral depigmentation. Wall eye (blue flecked); strabism (squinted).
• Tailless, too short tail. 
• Semi-long, smooth or fringed hair.
• All colours not indicated in the standard; large white patches.

N.B.
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked or formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either. (Fedco 12/2017 Amended DR/01/2018)

                                                    

Caucasian Shepherd Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

Guard and watchdog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

The Caucasian Shepherd Dog (CSD) is considered to be the breed taking its origin from ancient Caucasian dogs. The breed’s expansion covers territories from the Caucasian Range and the steppe regions of Southern Russia. The evolution of the breed was not only a result of natural selection but also influenced by nations that inhabited the Caucasian Region, Historically Caucasian Shepherd dogs were used for guarding and safe-keeping of herds, flocks and swellings from beasts of prey and predators. The first mention of a large molossoid dogs used by the army of Armenian Tsar Tigran the II dates from the 1st century BC, Selection work with the breed started in the USSR in the 1920s. Obligatory qualities such as physical power, self-confidence, fearlessness, sharply developed hearing, good sight, and a dense and waterproof coat have been cultivated in the process of selection. All these qualities as well as endurance allows people to use the Caucasian Shepherd Dogs in all kinds of climatic condition including the most severe ones.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:
The Caucasian Shepherd Dog is a harmonious built, large, strong dog with plenty of bone and powerful muscular system; of a slight rectangular format.
Sexual dimorphism is well pronounced. Males are masculine, with well-developed withers and a bigger head in comparison with females. They are also more massive, bigger and often shorter in body than females.
In dogs with longer coat-variety males have a distinctly pronounced mane.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:
The body length exceeds the height at withers by 3-8 %. The length of the forelegs averages 50-52% of the height at the withers. The length of the skull correlates with the length of the muzzle as 3:2.

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT:

Behaviour is steady, active, self-confident, fearless and independent. The Caucasian Shepherd Dog shows a devoted attachment to its master; it is an excellent guard dog.

HEAD
CRANIAL REGION:

The head is large, massive, and broad in cheekbones; when viewed from above the head looks like a wedge with broad base.
Skull: Massive and broad; forehead is almost flat, with a marked but not deep furrow. Superciliary ridges are developed, but not protruding. Occipital bone inconspicuous.
Stop: Noticeable but not clearly marked.

FACIAL REGION:
Nose: Black, large, with correct open nostrils, not proceeding the muzzle outline. A black nose in solid, spotted or piebald colours is desirable but not obligatory (but genetic blue or liverbrown nose is not allowed).
Muzzle: Broad and deep, gradually tapering towards the nose; with strong jaws and chin; great depth and is well filled under the eyes. The bridge of the nose is broad. The upper lines of the muzzle and skull run parallel.
Lips: Thick, close-fitting, well pigmented.
Jaw / Teeth: Teeth should be healthy, white, strong; incisors are close to each other and in one line. Complete scissor or pincer bite: (i.e.42 teeth).
Injured, broken or knocked out incisors or canines which do not affect the use of the bite is of no consequence, neither is absence of PM1s.
Cheeks: Well developed and emphasized by well pronounced chewing muscles.
Eyes: Moderate size, oval in shape, not too deep set, wide and obliquely placed. The colour is different shades of brown from dark to hazelnut. Eyelids are black, dry and close-fitting. Expression is serious, attentive and inquisitive.
Ears: Moderate size, thick, triangular shape naturally pendant, high and wide set. Inner part of ear is close lying to the cheeks. Ears are traditionally cropped in country of origin. Natural ears are of equal value.

NECK:

Of medium length, powerful, low set; rounded in the cross-section. Crest is pronounced especially in males.

BODY:
Very well developed in all dimensions; broad, well-muscled and well balanced.
Withers: Well pronounced, moderately long. The height at the withers slightly exceeds the height over the rump.
Back: Straight, broad, firm.
Loin: Short, broad, slightly arched.
Croup: Moderately long, broad, rounded, slightly sloping to root of the tail.
Chest: Long, broad, well ribbed up, deep in general as well as in its frontal part; in cross-section has broad-oval shape. Ribs well sprung, false ribs are long. The forechest is marked.
Underline and belly: Belly moderately tucked up towards rear.

TAIL:

Set on high, sickle curve or curled. In repose hanging down reaching the hocks; when the dog is alert, tail can be carried above the backline.

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS:
General appearance: Well muscled. Viewed from the front, straight, parallel forelegs that are set fairly wide apart.
Shoulder: Strongly muscled. Moderately long, broad, slanting to form an angle of approximately 100 degrees with the upper arm. The shoulder-blade lies close against the chest.
Upper arm: Strong and muscular, close fitting.
Elbow: Placed strictly back in parallel axis; turning neither in not out.
Forearm: Straight, massive, moderately long, well muscled; rounded in cross-section.
Metacarpus (Pastern): Short, massive; almost straight viewed from the front and the side.
Forefeet: Large, rounded in shape, well arched, well-knit.

HINDQUARTERS:
General appearance: Viewed from the rear straight, standing parallel and moderately wide. The stifles and hocks sufficiently well angulated when viewed from the side. The hindquarters should not be set too far back.
Thigh: Broad, well muscled, moderately long.
Stifle (Knee): Sufficiently well angulated.
Lower thigh: Broad, well muscled, moderately long.
Hock joint: Broad and lean, sufficiently well bent; firm, turning neither in nor out.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Not long, massive; almost straight viewed from the front and the side.
Hind feet: Large, rounded in shape, well arched, well-knit.

GAIT / MOVEMENT:

Free, elastic, unhurried movement with good driving power in the hindquarters. Good stability in all joints and with good co-ordination. The trot tends to be the typical movement. The withers are on the same level as the rump, and the backline is relatively stable during movement.

SKIN:

Thick, sufficiently elastic, without any folds and wrinkles.

COAT:
Hair: Straight, coarse, stand-off coat with well-developed undercoat. The length of guard coat as well as the undercoat should not be less than 5 cm. The coat on the head and forelegs is shorter and thicker. The tail is completely covered with dense coat and looks thick and furry. The longer outer coat forms “brushes” on the ears, a “mane” around the neck and “trousers” on the back sides of the thighs.
Colour: Any solid colour, piebald or spotted colour. Except for solid black; diluted black or black in any combination or genetic blue or liver brown colour.

SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Height at the withers: Males: Desirable height 72-75 cms;
Minimum 68 cms;
Females: Desirable height 67-70 cms;
Minimum 64 cms.
Larger stature is accepted, as long as conformation is harmonic.
Weight: Males: Minimum: 50 kgs;
Females: Minimum: 45 kgs.

FAULTS:
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

SEVERE FAULTS:
Too light or too coarse in built.
Lack of self-confidence.
Deviations in the sexual dimorphism.
Head small in proportions to the body; light; narrow; long; coarse; blocky or apple head.
Abrupt stop.
Muzzle: downfaced; dishfaced or snipy.
Teeth too small; widely spaced; incisors not set in one line; any deviation from the dental formula (except for absence of the PM1s).
Insufficiently marked cheekbones.
Eyes large; bulging; very light; showing haw; slack eye lids.
Ears large; thin or set too low.
Top line roach or sway back; long, sagging or arched loin; rump higher than the withers.
Body square; too cobby; too long; narrow in both front and rear; too leggy; chest very short, flat or shallow; croup short or steep.
Stumped tail.
Weak bone; muscles and ligaments in joints.
Lacking correct angulations.
Bowed forearms.
Unbalanced movement.
Lack of driving power in the hindquarters.
Coat that is very soft; curly; has very short guard coat or no undercoat.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:
Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Any deviation from the required bite.
Incompleted dental formula (absence of any tooth except the third molars (M3) or the first premolars (PM1s).
Entropion.
Wall eyes; deep blue; green shaded or eyes of different colour.
Docked tail.
Constant pacing or impossibility to assess the gait.
Black colour in any variation; solid; diluted; piebald, spotted or as saddle (except for mask).
Genetic blue colour in any variation or nuance.
Bluish-grey pigmented nose, lips and eye rims.
Genetic brown colour in any variation or nuance.
Genetic brown nose, lips and eye rims.
Tan-marking in black, blue or brown dogs.
Height below minimum.
Severe deviations in the sexual dimorphism in males.

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

Note: CROPPED EARS - Schedule 2 Regulation 7
Any dog with cropped ears born within the jurisdiction of the KUSA, imported into it and cropped within it, shall not be registered or recorded by the Kennel Union and if any such dog is registered or recorded in contravention of this Regulation, upon discovery, its registration or recording shall be cancelled.

7.1 Any dog with ears cropped before importation into the KUSA area of jurisdiction is not eligible for competition at any Kennel Union event.

Central Asia Shepherd Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION: Guard and watch dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: Central Asia Shepherd Dog (CASD) is one of the most ancient breed of dogs. They were formed as a breed from natural selection during more than four thousand years in the vast territory, which spreads nowadays from the Caspian Sea to China and from Southern Ural to Afghanistan. Its heritage is from the most ancient dogs of Tibet, Cattle Dogs from various nomad tribes’ dogs that are closely related to the Mongolian Shepherd Dog and the Tibetan Mastiff. The CASD were mainly used to protect cattle, caravans and the owner’s dwellings, and being

exposed to rigid natural selection. Hard living conditions and constant struggle against predators have had influence on the shape as well as the dog’s character and it has made it strong, fearless, and taught it to save its energy. In the places of primordial habitation, the CASD were used mainly to protect herds from predators and also as guard dogs.

The work with the breed started in the USSR in the 1930s.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: The Central Asian Shepherd Dog is of harmonious build and large stature, moderately long (neither long nor short in body).

Robust, muscular body, voluminous, but not with visible muscles.

Sexual dimorphism is clearly defined. The males are more massiveand courageous than females with more pronounced withers and a larger head. Full maturity is reached by the age of 3 years.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The length of body only slightly

exceeds the height at withers. Larger stature is desirable but proportional constitution must remain. Length of forelegs up to the elbow is 50-52 % of the height at the withers. The length of muzzle

is less than 1/2 the length of head, but more than a 1/3.

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT: Self assured, balanced quiet, proud and independent. The dogs are very courageous and have high working capacity, endurance and a natural instinct of

territory. Fearlessness towards large predators is a characteristic feature.

HEAD: Massive and in balance with general appearance. Head shape is close to rectangular, seen from above and side.

CRANIAL REGION: Deep in skull. The forehead is flat and the skull part is flat and long. Occiput is well defined but hardly visible, because of well developed muscles. Supraorbital ridges are moderately defined.

Stop: Stop is moderately defined.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: Large, well developed but not exceeding the general contour of the muzzle. Colour of the nose is black but in white and fawn coloured dogs the nose can be lighter.

Muzzle: The muzzle is blunt and of moderate length, it is almost rectangular viewed from above and sides and narrowing very slightly towards the nose. Muzzle is voluminous, deep and well

filled under the eyes.

Bridge of muzzle is broad, straight and sometimes with a slight down face. Chin is well developed.

Lips: Thick, upper lips tightly covering the lower lips when the mouth is closed. Full black pigmentation is preferable.

Jaws / Teeth: The jaws are strong and broad. Teeth are large, white and close to each other, 42 in total. Incisors are set on a line. Scissors bite, pincer bite and also reversed scissors bite is accepted. Canines are set well apart. An injury to the teeth that does not affect the use of the bite is of no consequence.

Cheeks: The Cheekbones are long and well developed, without interfering with the rectangular shape of head.

Eyes: Medium sized, with oval form, set well apart, looking straight ahead, and moderately deep set. The colour of the eyes from dark brown to hazel. The darker colour is preferable. The eyelids are thick

and preferably with lower eye lid not too loose. No visible third eyelid. Fully pigmented eyes rims are preferred. Whatever the colour of coat, eye rims should be black. Expression is confident and dignified.

Ears: Medium sized, triangular shape, thick, low set and hanging.

Lower part of ear base is level with, or slightly below the eyes.

Traditional ear-cropping, in the fashion illustrated on the cover, is still practiced in country of origin and in countries where it is not prohibited by law.

NECK: The neck is of medium length, very powerful, oval at crosssection, well muscled, and low set. Dewlap is a specific breed feature.

BODY:

Top line: Well proportioned and well sustained, and must keep typical topline in stance.

Withers: Well defined, especially in males, muscular, long and high, with well defined transition to the back.

Back: Straight, broad, well muscled, the actual length is about ½ of the length from the withers to tail set.

Loin: Short, broad, muscled, slightly arched.

Croup: Moderately long, broad, well muscled, slightly sloping to tail set. The height at the withers exceeds the height over rump by 1-2 cm.

Chest: Deep, long, broad, distinctly developed, ribcage broadening towards the back. False ribs are long. Lower part of the chest is level with the elbow or slightly below. Fore chest extends slightly in front

of the humerus/scapula joint.

Underline and belly: Belly is moderately tucked up.

TAIL: Thick at the base and set fairly high. The natural tail is carried in a sickle curve or curled in a loose ring that begins at the last third of the tail. When alert the tail rises to the line of back or

slightly above. Hanging at rest. Traditional tail docking, in the fashion illustrated on the cover, is still practiced in country of origin and in countries where it is not prohibited by law.

Natural tail is of equal value to a docked tail.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

General appearance: Forelegs are straight with strong bone, seen from the front parallel and not close together. Seen from the side, the forearms are straight.

Shoulder: Shoulder blade long, well laid back, forming an angle with the upper arm about 100°. Well muscled.

Upper arm: Oblique, long, and strong.

Elbow: Correctly fitting, turning neither in nor out.

Forearm: Straight, very strong bone, long, oval cross-section.

Metacarpus (Pastern): Moderate length, broad, strong, upright pasterns.

Forefeet: Large, rounded, arching toes, pads are voluminous and thick; nails could be of any color.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Viewed from the rear straight and parallel, set a little wider than forequarters.

Thigh: Broad, moderately long and strongly muscled.

Stifle (Knee): Turning neither in nor out. The knee angulation is moderate.

Lower thigh: Of almost the same length as upper thigh.

Hock joint: Moderate angle.

Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Very strong of moderate length, perpendicular. No dewclaws.

Hind feet: Large, rounded, arching toes, pads are voluminous and thick; nails could be of any color.

GAIT / MOVEMENT: Well balanced and elastic. Trot with free reach in the forequarters and with powerful drive from the hindquarters. Top line is steady while moving. All joints to bend

without effort. The angulations in hindquarters is more distinct when moving than in standing pose.

SKIN: Thick, sufficiently elastic loose lying to prevent injuries if in combat with predators.

COAT:

Hair: Abundant, straight coarse and with well developed undercoat.

Hair on the head and on the front part of limbs is short and dense.

Coat on withers is often longer. The guard coat can be short or slightly longer. Depending on the length of the outer coat there can be either shorter hair (3-5 cm), covering the whole body or with

longer hair (7-10 cm) which forms a mane on the neck, feathers behind the ears and on the back parts of the limbs and on the tail.

Colour: Any, except genetic blue and genetic brown in any combination and black mantel on tan.

SIZE AND WEIGHT:

Height at the withers: Males: Minimum 70 cms.

Females: Minimum 65 cms.

Large size desirable, but proportional constitution must remain.

Weight: Males: Minimum 50 kgs.

Females: Minimum 40 kgs.

FAULTS:

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the

health and welfare of the dog.

Slight deviations from the breed type.
Female tending male type.
Rounded skull, narrow muzzle & narrow lower jaw, small nose.
Eyes obliquely or close set, loose eyelids.
Ears high set.
Thin or loose hanging lips.
High over the croup. Slightly short croup.
Narrow front.
Exaggerated angulations in hindquarters.
Splayed feet and long toes.
Hackney gait, slightly un-balanced movement.
Very short coat
SEVERE FAULTS:

Highly strung.
Significant deviation from required type and constitution.
Leggy appearance; light in bone, soft muscles.
Eyes too light or bulging eyes.
Top line falling away.
Croup much higher than the withers.
Narrow, short and steep croup.
Natural stubbed tail, kinked tail.
Pasterns too high, down in pastern.
Hindquarters set too far under body.
Height at withers 2 cm less than stated minimum.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Timid, overexcited.
Male of female type.
Overshot or distinctly undershot bite.
Eyes of different colour, blue or green eyes; squint.
Loose joints.
Coat of any combination of genetic brown or genetic blue colour.
Colour that is tan with distinctive black mantle.
Coat that is curly or soft.
Unbalanced movement
N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.
Note: CROPPED EARS – Schedule 2 Regulation 7

Any dog with cropped ears born within the jurisdiction of the KUSA, imported into it and cropped within it, shall not be registered or recorded by the Kennel Union and if any such dog is registered or recorded in contravention of this Regulation, upon discovery, its registration or recording shall be cancelled.

7.1. Any dog with ears cropped before importation into the KUSA area of jurisdiction is not eligible for competition at any Kennel Union event.

Do-Khyi (Tibetan Mastiff)

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

ORIGIN : Tibet (China).

PATRONAGE : FCI.

UTILIZATION: A companion, watch and guard dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: The Tibetan Mastiff (Do Khyi) is an ancient working breed of the nomad herders of the Himalaya and a traditional guardian of the Tibetan monasteries. It has been surrounded by great myth since its first discovery in antiquity. From the mentioning by Aristoteles (384-322 b.C.) to the famous writings of Marco Polo, who went to Asia in 1271, all historical reports praise the natural strength and impressiveness of the Tibetan Mastiff- both physically and mentally. Even its bark has been described as a unique and highly treasured feature of the breed. Leading European cynologists of the past, like Martin and Youatt, Megnin, Beckmann, Siber as well as Strebel and Bylandt have intensively covered the Tibetan Mastiff, as they had been fascinated by its origin and function in the Tibetan culture. Some even considered the breed to be the very forefather of all large mountain and mastiff breeds. One of the first known Tibetan Mastiffs to reach Western shores was a male sent to Queen Victoria by Lord Hardinge (then Viceroy of India) in 1847. Later in the 1880s, Edward VII (then Prince of Wales) took two dogs back to England. An early recorded litter of Tibetan Mastiffs was born in 1898 in the Berlin Zoo.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: Powerful, heavy, well built, with good bone. Impressive; of solemn and earnest appearance. Combines majestic strength, robustness and endurance; fit to work in all climate conditions. Slow to mature, only reaching its best at 2-3 years in females and at least 4 years in males.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

Skull measured from occiput to stop equal to muzzle from stop to end of nose but muzzle may be a little shorter.

Body slightly longer than height at withers.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT: Independent. Protective. Commands respect. Most loyal to his family and territory.

HEAD: Broad, heavy and strong. In adults a wrinkle may extend from above the eyes down to the corner of mouth.

CRANIAL REGION:  

Skull: Large, very slightly rounded, with strongly pronounced occiput.

Stop: Well defined.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: Broad, as dark as possible depending on coat colour, well opened nostrils.

Muzzle: Fairly broad, well filled and deep. End of muzzle square.

Lips: Well developed and covering the underjaw.                    

Jaws/Teeth: Jaws strong with perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper incisors closely overlapping the lower incisors and set square to the jaws. Level bite acceptable. Dentition fits tightly.

Eyes: Medium size, any shade of brown and in accordance with coat colour, the darker the better. Set well apart, oval and slightly slanting. Eyelids tightly fitting the eyeball. Expression of dignity.

Ears: Medium size, triangular, pendant, set between the level of the skull and the eye, dropping forward and hanging close to head; carried forward when alert. Ear leathers covered with soft, short hair.

NECK: Strong, well muscled, arched. Not too much dewlap. Covered by thick upstanding mane, not so pronounced in bitches.

BODY: Strong.

Back: Straight, muscular.

Croup: Broad and rather flat.

Chest: Rather deep, of moderate breadth, with good spring of rib, to give heart-shaped ribcage. Brisket reaching to below elbows.

TAIL: Medium length. Set high on line with top of back, carried high, loosely curled over back, when dog alert or in motion; well feathered.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

General appearance: Straight, well angulated, well covered all over with strong hair.

Shoulders: Well laid, muscular.

Elbows: Neither turned in nor out.

Forearms: Straight. Strong bone.

Metacarpus (Pasterns): Strong, slightly sloping.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Powerful, muscular, with good angulation. Seen from behind, hindlegs parallel.

Upper thigh: Rather long; strong, with good hard muscles, but not bulging.

Stifle: Well bent

Hock: Strong, low set.  

Dewclaws optional.

FEET: Fairly large, strong, round and compact, with good feathering between well-arched toes.  

GAIT / MOVEMENT: Powerful, but always light and elastic: with good reach and drive. When speed increases tends to single track. When walking appears very deliberate. Capable of functioning over a varied terrain with stamina and suppleness.

COAT

HAIR: Quality of greater importance than quantity. Coat harsh, thick, top coat not too long, with dense and rather wolly undercoat in cold weather which becomes rather sparse in warmer months. Males carry noticeably more coat than females. Hair fine but harsh, straight and off-standing. Never silky, curly or wavy. Neck and shoulders heavily coated, giving mane-like appearance. Tail bushy and well feathered; hindlegs well feathered on upper rear parts.

COLOUR: Rich black, with or without tan marking; blue, with or without tan markings; gold, from rich fawn to deep red, sable. All colours to be as pure as possible. Tan ranges from a rich chestnut to a lighter colour. White star on breast permissible. Minimal white markings on feet acceptable. Tan markings appear above eyes, on lower part of legs and underside of tail. Tan markings on muzzle; spectacle markings tolerated around eyes.

SIZE:

Height at the withers: Dogs: 66cm (26in) minimum,.

Bitches: 61cm (24in) minimum..  

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

SEVERE FAULTS:

Lacking physical condition and fitness.

Head light or heavily wrinkled.

Pendulous flews.

Pronounced dewlap.

Large and/or low set ears.

Light eyes or staring expression.

Weak pigmentation, particularly of nose.

Barrelled ribs.

Tightly curled tail over hips.

Over angulated or straight hindquarters.

Heavy constrained movement.

Under minimum height, tolerance 2 cm.

ELIMINATING FAULTS:

Aggressive or overly shy.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

Undershot or overshot mouth.

All other colours than above mentioned e.g. white, cream, grey, brown (liver), lilac, brindle, particolours.

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.                   

Dobermann

Posted in Working Group

 

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

APPLICATION
Companion, protection and working dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY
The Dobermann is the only German breed which bears the name of its original breeder, Friedrich Louis Dobermann (02.01.1834 - 09.06.1894). He was believed to be a tax collector, offal abattoir manager (knacker) and a part-time dog catcher, legally able to catch all stray dogs. He bred with animals from this reservoir that were particularly sharp. The so-called ‘butcher’s dogs’ which were already considered a relatively pure breed at that time, played a most important role in the origination of the Dobermann breed. These dogs were an early type of Rottweiler, mixed with a type of shepherd which existed in ‘Thüringen’ as a black dog with rust red markings. Herr Dobermann bred with this mixture of dogs in the Eighteen Seventies. Thus he obtained ‘his breed’ - not only alert but highly protective working and housedogs. They were often used as guard and police dogs. Their extensive use in police work led to the nickname ‘Gendarme dog’. They were used in hunting to control large vermin. In these circumstances it was a matter of course that the Dobermann was recognised officially as a Police Dog by the beginning of the century.
The Dobermann breed requires a medium sized, powerful, muscular dog. Despite his substance, he shall be elegant and noble, which will be evident in his body line. He must be exceptionally suitable as a companion, protection and working dog and also as a family dog.

GENERAL APPEARANCE
The Dobermann is of medium size, strong and muscularly built. Through the elegant lines of its body, its proud stature, and its expression of determination, it conforms to the ideal picture of a dog.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS
The body of the Dobermann appears to be almost square, particularly in males. The length of the body measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock shall not be more than 5% longer than the height from the withers to the ground in males and 10% in females.

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT
The disposition of the Dobermann is friendly and calm; very devoted to the family, it loves children. Medium temperament and medium sharpness (alertness) is desired. A medium threshold of irritation is required with a good contact to the owner. Easy to train, the Dobermann enjoys working and shall have good working ability, courage and hardness. The particular values of self confidence and intrepidness are required and also adaptability and attention to fit the social environment.

HEAD
Cranial Region
Strong and in proportion to the body. Seen from the top, the head is shaped in the form of a blunt wedge. Viewed from the front the crown line shall be almost level and not dropping off to the ears. The muzzle line extends almost straight to the top line of the skull which falls, gently rounded, into the neck line. The superciliary ridge is well developed without protruding. The forehead furrow is still visible. The occiput shall not be conspicuous. Seen from the front and the top, the sides of the head must not bulge. The slight bulge between the rear of the upper jawbone and the cheek bone shall be in harmony with the total length of the head. The head muscles shall be well developed.
Stop
Shall be slight but visibly developed.

FACIAL REGION
Nose
Nostrils well developed, more broad than round, with large openings without overall protrusion. Black - on black dogs; on brown dogs, corresponding lighter shades.
Muzzle
The muzzle must be in the right proportion with the upper head and must be strongly developed. The muzzle shall have depth. The mouth opening shall be wide, reaching to the molars. A good muzzle width must also be present on the upper and lower incisor area.
Flews
They shall be tight and lie close to the jaw which will ensure a tight closure of the mouth. The pigment of the gum to be dark; on brown dogs a corresponding lighter shade.
Jaw/Dentition/Teeth
Powerful broad upper and under jaw, scissor bite, 42 teeth correctly placed and normal size.
Eyes
Middle sized, oval and dark in colour. Lighter shades are permitted for brown dogs. Close lying eyelids. Eyelids shall be covered with hair. Baldness around the rim of the eye is highly undesirable.
Ears
In a country where cropping is not permitted the uncropped ear is equally recognised. (Medium size preferred and with the front edge lying close to the cheeks).
NECK
The neck must have a good length and be in proportion to the body and the head. It is dry and muscular. Its outline rises gradually and is softly curved. Its carriage is upright and shows much nobility.

BODY
Withers
Shall be pronounced in height and length, especially in males and thereby determine the slope of the topline rising from the croup to the withers.
Back
Short and tight, of good width and well muscled.
Loin
Of good width and well muscled. The bitch can be slightly longer in loin because she requires space for suckling.
Croup
It shall fall slightly, hardly perceptible from sacrum to the root of the tail and appears well rounded, being neither straight nor noticeably sloping, of good width and well muscled.
Chest
Length and depth of chest must be in the right proportion to the body length. The depth, with slightly arched ribs, should be approximately 50% the height of the dog at the withers. The chest has got a good width with an especially well developed forechest.
Underline
From the bottom of the breastbone to the pelvis the underline is noticeably tucked up.
Tail
It is high set and docked short whereby approximately two tail vertebrae remain visible. In countries where docking is legally not permitted, the tail may remain natural. Customarily docked.

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS
General
The front legs as seen from all sides are almost straight, vertical to the ground and strongly developed.
Shoulders
The shoulderblade lies close against the chest and both sides of the shoulderblade edge are well muscled and reach over the top of the Thoracic Vertebra, slanting as much as possible and well set back. The angle to the horizontal is approximately 50%.
Upper Arm
Good length, well muscled, the angle to the shoulderblade is approximately 105o to 110 o.
Elbow
Close in, not turned out.
Lower Arm
Strong and straight. Well muscled. Length in harmony with the whole body.
Carpus
Strong.
Metacarpus
Bones strong. Straight seen from the front. Seen from the side, only slightly sloping, maximum
10 o.
Front Feet
The feet are short and tight. The toes are arched towards the top (cat like). Nails short and black.

HINDQUARTERS
General
Seen from the back the Dobermann looks, because of his well developed pelvic muscles in hips and croup, wide and rounded off. The muscles running from the pelvis towards the upper and lower thigh results in good width development, as well as in the upper thigh area, in the knee joint area and at the lower thigh. The strong hind legs are straight and stand parallel.
Upper Thigh
Good length and width, well muscled. Good angulation to the hip joint. Angulation to the horizontal approximately between 80 o to 85 o.
Knee
The knee joint is strong and is formed by the upper and lower thigh as well as the knee cap. The knee angulation is approximately 130 o.
Lower Thigh
Medium length and in harmony with the total length of the hindquarter.
Hock Joint
Medium strength and parallel. The lower thigh bone is joined to the Metatarsal at the hock joint (angle about 140 o).
Metatarsus
It is short and stands vertical to the ground.
Hind Foot
Like the front feet, the toes of the back feet are short, arched and closed. Nails are short and black.

GAIT
The gait is of special importance to both the working ability as well as the exterior appearance. The gait is elastic, elegant, agile, free and ground covering. The front legs reach out as far as possible. The hindquarter gives far reaching and necessary elastic drive. The front leg of one side and back leg of the other side move forward at the same time. There should be good stability of the back, the ligaments and the joints.

SKIN
The skin fits closely all over and is of good pigment.

COAT
Hair
The hair is short, hard and thick. It lies tight and smooth and is equally distributed over the whole surface. Undercoat is not allowed.
Colour
The colour is black or brown, with rust red clearly defined and clean markings. Markings on the muzzle, as a spot on the cheeks and the top of the eyebrow, on the throat, two spots on the forechest, on the metacarpus, metatarsus and feet, on the inside of the back thigh, on the arms and below the tail.

SIZE AND WEIGHT
Size
Height at the highest point of withers :Dogs: 68 - 72 cm
Bitches: 63 - 68 cm
Medium size desirable.
Weight : Dogs: about 40 - 45 kg
Bitches: about 32 - 35 kg

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
General Appearance
Reversal of sexual impression; little substance; too light; too heavy; too leggy; weak bones.
Head
Too heavy; too narrow; too short; too long; too much or too little stop; Roman nose; bad slope of the top line of the skull; weak under jaw; round or slit eyes; light eye; cheeks too heavy; loose flews; eyes too open or too deep set; ear set too high or too low; open mouth angle.
Neck
Slightly short; too short; loose skin around the throat; dewlap; too long (not in harmony); ewe neck.
Body
Back not tight; sloping croup; sway back; roach back; insufficient or too much spring of rib; insufficient depth or width of chest; back too long overall; too little forechest; tail set too high or too low; too little or too much tuck up.
Limbs
Too little or too much angulation front or hindquarters; loose elbow; deviations from the standard position and length of bones and joints; feet too close together or too wide apart; cow hocks; spread hocks; close hocks; open or soft paws, crooked toes; pale nails.
Coat
Markings too light or not sharply defined; smudged markings; mask too dark; big black spot on the legs; chest markings hardly visible or too large; hair long, soft, curly or dull. Thin coat; bald patches; large tufts of hair particularly on the body; visible undercoat.
Character
Inadequate self confidence; temperament too high; sharpness too high; too high or too low a threshold of irritation.
Size
Deviation of size up to two centimetres from the standard should result in a lowering of the quality grading.
Gait
Wobbly; restricted or stiff gait; pacing.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS
General
Pronounced reversal of sexual impressions.
Eyes
Yellow eyes (bird of prey eye); wall eye.
Dentition
Overshot; level bite; undershot; missing teeth.
Coat
White spots; pronounced long and wavy hair; pronounced thin coat or large bald patches.
Character
Fearful, nervous and aggressive animals.
Size
Dogs which deviate more than two centimetres over or under the standard.
NB Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. Only clinically and functionally healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

 

FCI 14/2/94 (143) Gp2 Fedco 12/91 Exco 1/92
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without permission in writing from the publisher.
The publisher of this edition is the Kennel Union of Southern Africa.

16.06.2004

Dogo Argentino

Posted in Working Group

 

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION: Big-game hunting dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: This breed is native to the province of Cordoba, in the Mediterranean region of Argentina.

Its creator was Dr. Antonio Nores Martinez, a prominent and active surgeon (1907 – 1956).

His work was based upon the methodical crossbreeding of the “Old Fighting Dog of Cordoba”, a breed of great power and strength, which was the product of crossbreeding among dog of the breeds

Bulldogs and Bull Terriers.

He selected completely white dogs for breeding, not undershot, with heavy heads and long muzzle.

After a thorough and minute character study and selection, through different generations, his aim was accomplished forming different families always using as a start the Old Fighting Dog of Cordoba which was crossed at first with English Bull Dog, Great Dane, Pyrenean Mastiff, Bull Terrier, Boxer, Pointer, Dogue de Bordeaux and Irish Wolfhound.

In 1947 the breed was already created and its genotype and phenotype were stabilized. The same year the breed standard was presented at the Hunter’s Club in the City of Buenos Aires. Its strength, tenacity, sense of smell and bravery make it the best in the pack of dogs to hunt wild boars, peccaries, pumas and other predators of agriculture and livestock that inhabit the vast and diverse regions of Argentina. This is the traditional activity for which Antonio Nores created this breed.

In 1964 it was recognized as a breed by the FCA (Federación Cinologica Argentina) and the Sociedad Rural Argentina, which opened their studbook to initiate registry. Just in 1973 the breed was accepted by the FCI. This was possible thanks to the great passion and unique work and effort of Dr. Agustín

Nores Martínez, brother of the founder of the breed, who achieved this recognition not only because of his individual actions but also from the institutional action of the FCA and the Dogo Argentino Club “Dr. Antonio Nores Martinez”.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: It is an athletic dog, mesomorphic, normal type, of harmonious proportions. With powerful muscles and agile, his appearance gives the impression of power, energy and

strength, in contrast to its expression of friendship and gentleness.

All-white; can have a single dark spot on the skull.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: Mesocephalic, the muzzle should be the same length as the skull.

The height at the withers should be slightly greater than the height at the croup.

Depth of chest should represent at least 50% of the height at the withers.

The length of the body should exceed the height at the withers by only 10% (maximum).

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT: It should be silent, never barking on the trail, with a keen nose and excellent flair, vent, agile, strong, robust and especially brave.

Should never be aggressive toward humans, a feature that will be severely observed. It must give you love without conditions or reservations.

HEAD: Of mesocephalic type, it looks strong and powerful.

The cranio-facial axes are convergent.

CRANIAL REGION:

Skull: Compact, convex seen in profile and from the front due to the outline of the well developed masticatory and neck muscles.

Occiput: Occipital protuberance not visible due to powerful muscles of neck which hide it completely.

Stop: Defined but should not be deep or have sharp/abrupt angles.

FACIAL REGION: As long as the skull, the line joining the two frontal orbital muscles is equidistant from the occiput and the mandibular joint of the upper jaws.

Nose: Strongly Black pigmented. Nostrils well opened.

Muzzle: Same length as the skull, with concave top line.

Lips: Tight, free edges, black pigmented, never pendulous.

Jaws/Teeth: Jaws correctly positioned, well-developed and strong,

With no under or overshot, with healthy teeth, large and with normal

implant. Full dentition is recommended. Scissor bite, pincer bite is accepted.

Cheeks: Large, marked, covered by strong skin, without folds. Well developed masseter muscles.

Eyes: Medium size, almond shaped, dark or hazel coloured, lids preferably with black pigmentation. Sub-frontal position, wide apart, lively and intelligent expression but at the same time remarkably firm.

Ears: Set high, lateral, well apart due to the width of the skull.

Functionally, they should be cropped and erect, in triangular shape and with a length that should not exceed 50% of the front edge of the auricle of the natural ear. Without being cropped, they are of medium length, broad, thick, flat and rounded at the tip.

Covered with smooth hair which is slightly shorter than on the rest of the body; they can have small spots, not to be penalized.

In natural position they hang down covering the back of the cheeks. When the dog is alert they may be carried semi-erect.

NECK: Thick, arched, the skin of the throat is very thick forming smooth folds without forming dewlap. The elasticity of the skin is due to the cellular tissue being very lax.

BODY: Rectangular. The length of the body (measured from the point of shoulder to point of buttock) may exceed the height at the withers by only 10%.

Top line: Higher at the withers, sloping gently to the croup. The adults have a median furrow along the spine caused by the prominence of the spinal muscles. See from the side should not have any depression.

Withers: Strong, well defined and high.

Back: Very strong, with muscles well defined.

Loins: Short, broad, very muscular.

Croup: Broad and strong. Moderately inclined.

Chest: Broad and deep. Seen from the front and profile, the sternum must reach down to the level of the elbows, thereby giving maximum breathing capacity. The thorax is long with ribs moderately curved.

Underline and Belly: Rising slightly on the bottom line of the chest, never tucked up, strong and with good muscle tension.

TAIL: Long, not to exceed the hock joint, thick medium set. At rest it hangs down naturally, in action it is raised in an arc with an ample curve.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

General appearance: Legs straight, vertical, with short and tight toes.

Shoulders: Laid back, with great muscular development without exaggerations.

Upper arm: Same length as the shoulder; well inclined.

Elbows: Sturdy, covered with a thicker and more elastic skin, without folds or wrinkles. Naturally placed against the chest wall.

Forearm: As long as the upper arm, perpendicular to the ground, straight with strong bone and muscles.

Pastern joint: Broad and in line with the forearm, without bony prominences or skin folds.

Pastern: Rather flat, well boned; seen from the side slightly inclined, without exaggeration.

Front feet: With short and tight-fitting toes. With strong thick and resistant pads, preferably black pigmented.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Well muscled, with short pasterns and tightfitting toes, without dewclaws. Moderate angulation.

Upper thigh: Well proportioned, with visible and well developed muscles.

Stifles: Well angulated.

Lower thigh: Slightly shorter than upper thigh, strong and muscular.

Hock joint / Hock: The tarsus-metatarsus section is short, strong and firm, ensuring powerful propulsion of the hind limb. Tarsus is robust, with the point of the hock very prominent. Hocks are strong,

almost cylindrical and vertical, without dewclaws.

Hind feet: Similar to forefeet, although somewhat smaller and slightly longer, maintaining the same characteristics.

GAIT / MOVEMENT: Agile and firm; with noticeable modification when showing interest in something, changing into an alert attitude and responding with quick reflexes, typical for this

breed. Calm when walking; trot is extended, with good front suspension and powerful rear propulsion. At gallop, the dog shows all of its energy, fully displaying its power. The movement is agile

and firm when walking, trotting or galloping. Should be harmonious and balanced showing a solid body construction. Ambling (pacing) is not accepted and is considered a serious fault.

SKIN: Homogeneous, thick but elastic. The semi-loose subcutaneous tissue is elastic, without wrinkling, except on the throat, where the subcutaneous tissue is more lax. Lips and eyelids pigmented in black are preferred. Black pigmented skin is not penalized.

COAT

Hair: Uniform, short, smooth, with an average length of 1.5 to 2 cm.

Density and thickness vary according to climate.

Colour: Entirely white. Only one black or dark-coloured patch on the skull, but which can also be located on one ear or around one eye.

The size of the spot must be in proportion to the size of the head, not exceeding 10% of the latter. Comparing two dogs of equal quality, the whiter should be preferred.

SIZE AND WEIGHT:

Height at the withers: Dogs: 60 to 68 cm.

Bitches: 60 to 65 cm.

Ideal height: Dogs: 64 to 65 cm.

Bitches: 62 to 64 cm.

Weight: Approximately: Males: 40 to 45 kg.

Bitches: 40 to 43 kg.

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional task.

SERIOUS FAULTS:

Lack of bone and muscle development (weakness).
Nose partially pigmented in adults specimens.
Small, weak or unhealthy teeth.
Entropion, ectropion.
Eyes of round appearance due to the shape of the eyelids, bulging eyes, light or yellow.
Barrel chest.
Keel chest. Flat ribs.
Lack of depth of chest, which does not reach the level of the elbows.
Lack of angulation on the limbs.
Croup higher than withers.
Ambling movement (pacing).
Males and females whose weight does not comply with the official valid standard and not in proportion to the size of the dog.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

Aggressive or overly shy.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Over or undershot mouth.
Lack of type.
Long hair.
Total lack of pigmentation of the nose in dogs aged 2 years or more.
Brown nose.
Pendulous lips.
Spots on the hair of the body.
More than one spot on the head.
Height above or below the limits established in the standard.
Eyes of different colour or blue.
Lack of sexual dimorphism.
N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.
Note: CROPPED EARS – Schedule 2 Regulation 7

Any dog with cropped ears born within the jurisdiction of the KUSA, imported into it and cropped within it, shall not be registered or recorded by the Kennel Union and if any such dog is registered or recorded in contravention of this Regulation, upon discovery, its registration or recording shall be cancelled.

7.1. Any dog with ears cropped before importation into the KUSA area of jurisdiction is not eligible for competition at any Kennel Union event.

 

Dogo Canario

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION:

Guard dog used for protection of cattle.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

A molossoid type dog, originating from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). It is believed to be the result of matings between the “majorero”, a prehispanic dog indigenous to these islands, and other molossoids introduced to the Canary Islands. These matings produced an ethnical group of mastiff-type dogs, of moderately large size, brindle or fawn with white marking, with a specific molossoid morphology but yet agile and powerful, having a strong temperament, robust and lively, loyal character. During the XVI and XVII centuries, the number of these dogs increased considerably and numerous references to them in pre- Conquest historical texts, especially in the “Cedularios delCabildo” (municipal registers), which explain their duties essentially as guard dogs and protectors of cattle.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

A moderately large sized molossoid, with a rectilinear profile and black mask. Robust and well-proportioned.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

The body is longer than the height at the withers; this characteristic is more noticeable in the female. Skull-foreface proportion is 60-40%. The width of the skull is 3/5 of the total length of the head. The distance from elbow to ground should be 50% of the height at the withers for males and a little less for females.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

Calm appearance; attentive expression. Especially suited to guarding and traditionally used for herding cattle. Balanced temperament and very self-confident. Low and deep bark. Obedient and docile with family members, very devoted to its master, but can be suspicious of strangers. Confident attitude, noble and a little distant. When alert, the stance is firm with a vigilant attitude.

HEAD:

Massive, brachycephalic and compact in appearance, covered with thick skin. The shape tends towards a slightly elongated cube. The cranial-facial lines are parallel or slightly converging.

CRANIAL REGION:

Skull: Slightly convex in anteposterior and transversal direction. Frontal bone tends to be flat. The width is almost identical to the length. Pronounced zygomatic arch, with well-developed cheek and jaw muscles, but not prominent, covered with loose skin.

The occipital protuberance is only slightly marked.

Stop: The stop is pronounced, but not abrupt. The furrow between the frontal lobes is well defined and is about two thirds the size of the skull.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: Wide, strong black pigmentation. In line with the muzzle. The nostrils are large to facilitate breathing.

Muzzle: Shorter than the skull, normally about 40% of the total length of the head. The width is 2/3 of that of the skull. Very wide base, narrowing slightly towards the nose. Bridge of the nose is flat and straight, without ridges.

Lips: The upper lip is pendulous, although not excessively. Seen from the front, the upper and lower lips come together to form an inverted V. The flews are slightly divergent. The inside of the lips is a dark colour.

Jaws/Teeth: Scissor bite or slightly undershot bite, max 2 mms. Pincer bite is admitted but not desirable due to the dental erosion produced. The dental arch is wide at the canines. The teeth are wide and solidly set. Large molars, small incisors, well developed canines.

Eyes: Slightly oval in shape, from medium to large in size. Set well apart, but neither sunken nor protruding. Eyelids are black and tight-fitting, never sagging. The colour varies from dark to medium brown, depending on the colour of the coat. They should never be light.

Ears: Medium sized, set well apart, with short and fine hair. They fall naturally on each side of the head. If folded, they are in the shape of a rose. They are set on slightly above eye level. Ears set too high and very close on the head are considered unusual. In countries were cropping is allowed, they must stand erect.

NECK:

Shorter than the length of the head. Skin on the underside is loose, forming a slight dewlap. Solid and straight, it tends to be cylindrical and muscular.

BODY:

Long, broad and deep.

Top line:Straight, without deformations and sustained by well developed but barely visible muscles. Rising slightly from the withers to the croup. The height at the croup is 1 – 2 cms more than the height at the withers.

Croup: Medium length, broad and rounded. Should not be long as this would limit movement. The female is usually broader.

Chest: With great capacity and well defined pectoral muscles. Seen from both the front and the side, it should be well let down to at least the elbow. Thoracic perimeter is usually equal to the height at the withers plus 45%. Well sprung ribcage.

Underline and belly: Slightly tucked up, never sagging. The flanks are only slightly pronounced.

TAIL:

Thick base, tapering to the tip, down to the hock but no longer. Medium set on. In action it rises like a sabre, but without curling nor leaning towards the back. At rest it hangs straight with a slight curve at the tip.

LIMBS:

FOREQUARTERS:

Shoulder: Well laid back.

Upper arm: Well angulated, oblique.

Forearm: Well balanced, straight. Strong boned and well-muscled.

Elbow: Must be neither too close to the ribs nor sticking out.

Metacarpus (Pastern): Very solid and slightly sloping.

Forefeet: Cat feet with rounded toes, not too close together. Well developed and black pads. Nails are dark, white nails should be avoided, although they can occur in function of coat colour.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Seen from behind, strong and parallel, without deviation.

Thigh: Long and well muscled thighs.

Stifle (Knee): Angulation not very pronounced but should not be insufficient.

Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Always well let down.

Hind feet: Slightly longer than the front feet, otherwise identical.

GAIT / MOVEMENT:

On the move, the Dogo Canario is agile and supple and should cover a lot of ground. Long reach. The tail is carried low and the head is carried only a little above the level of the back. When alert, the head and tail are carried high.

SKIN:

Thick and elastic. More loose on and around the neck. When alert, the skin on the head forms symmetrical wrinkles which fan out from the furrow between the front lobes.

COAT:

Hair: Short, coarse, flat with no undercoat (it can appear on neck and on back of the thighs). Rather coarse to the touch. Very short and fine on the ears; slightly longer on the withers and on the back of thighs.

Colour: All shades of brindle, from warm dark brown to pale grey or blond. All shades of fawn to sandy. White marks are acceptable on the chest, at the base of the neck or throat, forefeet and toes of hind feet, but these should be kept to a minimum. The mask is always black, and should not spread above eye level.

SIZE AND WEIGHT:

Height at the withers: Males: 60 - 66 cms.
Females: 56 - 62 cms.
For very typical specimens, a tolerance of 2 cm. over or under these limits is accepted.
Weight:
Minimum: Males: 50 kgs.
Females: 40 kgs.
Maximum: Males: 65 kgs.
Females: 55 kgs.
FAULTS:

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

Pincer bite.
SEVERE FAULTS:

Any fault is considered severe when affecting the expression and limiting the type of the dog.
Incorrect head proportions.
Extremely convergent facial-cranial lines (over pronounced stop)
Loins and withers of the same height.
Incorrect position of limbs.
Square profile.
Triangular head, narrow (not cube shape).
Thin, curled or deformed tail. Set on high.
Saddle or roach back.
Light eyes (yellow), very close together or oblique, sunken or protruding.
Excessive undershot mouth.
Insufficient mask.
Missing teeth (except P1)
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Total depigmented nose.
Unacceptable white marks.
Overshot mouth.
Croup lower than withers. Sloping topline.
Blue eyes or unmatched in colour.
Cropped tail.
N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.
Note: CROPPED EARS – Schedule 2 Regulation 7

Any dog with cropped ears born within the jurisdiction of the KUSA, imported into it and cropped within it, shall not be registered or recorded by the Kennel Union and if any such dog is registered or recorded in contravention of this Regulation, upon discovery, its registration or recording shall be cancelled.

7.1. Any dog with ears cropped before importation into the KUSA area of jurisdiction is not eligible for competition at any Kennel Union event.

Dogue de Bordeaux

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

DOGUE DE BORDEAUX

(Effective 31.03.2016)

UTILIZATION:
Guard, defence and dissuasion.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
The dogue de Bordeaux is one of the most ancient French breeds, probably a descendant of the Alans and, in particular, the alan vautre of which Gaston Phebus (or Febus), Count of Foix, wrote in the 14th century, in his Livre de Chasse that “he holds his bite stronger than three sighthounds”. The word “dogue” appeared at the end of the 14th century. In the middle of the 19th century these ancient dogues were hardly renowned outside the region of Aquitaine. They were used for hunting large game such as boar, for fighting (often codified), for the guarding of houses and cattle and in the service of butchers. In 1863 the first French dog show took place in Paris in the Jardin d’Acclimatation. The Dogues de Bordeaux were entered under their present name. There have been different types: The Toulouse type, the Paris type and the Bordeaux type, which is the origin of today’s Dogue. The breed, which had suffered greatly during the two world wars, to the point of being threat ened with extinction after the Second World War, got off to a fresh start in the 1960’s. 1st standard (“Caractère des vrais dogues”) in Pierre Megnin, Le Dogue de Bordeaux, 1896. 2nd standard in J. Kunstler, Etude critique du Dogue de Bordeaux, 1910. 3rd standard by Raymond Triquet, with the collaboration of Vet. Dr. Maurice Luquet, 1971. 4th standard reformulated according to Jerusalem model (FCI) by Raymond Triquet, with the collaboration of Philippe Serouil, President of the French Dogue de Bordeaux Club and its Committee, 1993. Precisions were added in 2007 by Raymond Triquet (Honorary President of the SADB), Sylviane Tompousky (President of the SADB) and Philippe Sérouil (committee member of the SADB).

GENERAL APPEARANCE:
Typical concave lined brachycephalic molossoid. The Dogue de Bordeaux is a very powerful dog, with a very muscular body yet retaining a harmonious general outline. It is built rather close to the ground, the distance sternum-ground being slightly less than the depth of the chest. Stocky, athletic and imposing, it has a very dissuasive aspect.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:
The length of the body, measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock, is superior to the height at the withers, in the proportion of 11/10.
The depth of the chest is more than half the height at the withers.
The maximum length of the muzzle is equal to one third of the length of the head.
The minimum length of the muzzle is equal to one quarter of the length of the head.
In the male, the perimeter of the skull corresponds more or less to the height at the withers.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT:

An ancient fighting dog, the Dogue de Bordeaux is gifted for guarding, which it assumes with vigilance and great courage but without aggressiveness. A good companion, very attached to its master and very affectionate. Calm, balanced with a high stimulus threshold. The male normally has a dominant character.

HEAD:
Voluminous, angular, broad, rather short, trapezoid when viewed from above and in front. The longitudinal axes of the skull out of the bridge of nose are convergent (towards the front). The head is furrowed with symmetrical wrinkles, each side of the median groove. These deep ropes of wrinkle are mobile depending on whether the dog is attentive or not. The wrinkle which runs from the inner corner of the eye to the corner of the mouth is typical. If present, the wrinkle running from the outer corner of the eye to either the corner of the mouth or the dewlap should be discreet.

CRANIAL REGION:

Skull:

- In the male: the perimeter of the skull measured at the level of its greatest width corresponds roughly to the height at the withers.

- In bitches: it may be slightly less. Its volume and shape are the consequences of the very important development of the temporals, supra-orbital arches, zygomatic arches and the spacing of the branches of the lower jaw. The upper region of the skull is slightly convex from one side to the other. The frontal groove is deep, diminishing towards the posterior end of the head. The forehead dominates the face but does not overhang it. However it is still wider than high.

Stop: Very pronounced, almost forming a right angle with the muzzle (95° to 100°).

FACIAL REGION:
Nose: Broad, well opened nostrils, well pigmented according to the colour of the mask. Upturned nose permissible but not if it is set back towards the eyes.

Muzzle: Powerful, broad, thick, but not fleshy below the eyes, rather short, upper profile very slightly concave, with moderately obvious folds. Its width hardly decreasing towards the tip of the muzzle, when viewed from above it has the general shape of a square. In relation to the upper region of the skull, the line of the muzzle forms a very obtuse angle upwards. When the head is held horizontally the tip of the muzzle, truncated, thick and broad at the base, is in front of a vertical tangent to the anterior face of the nose. Its perimeter is almost two thirds of that of the head. Its length varies between one third and minimum one quarter of the total length of the head, from the nose to the occipital crest. The limits stated (maximum one third and minimum one quarter of the total length of the head) are permissible but not sought after, the ideal length of the muzzle being between these two extremes.

Jaws: Jaws powerful, broad. Undershot (the undershot condition being a characteristic of the breed). The back of the lower incisors is in front of and not in contact with the front face of the upper incisors. The lower jaw curves upwards. The chin is well marked and must neither overlap the upper lip exaggeratedly nor be covered by it.

Teeth: Strong, particularly the canines. Lower canines set wide apart and slightly curved. Incisors well aligned especially in the lower jaw where they form an apparently straight line.

Lips: Upper lip thick, moderately pendulous, rectractile. When viewed in profile it shows a rounded lower line. It covers the lower jaw on the sides. In front the edge of the upper lip is in contact with the lower lip, then drops on either side thus forming an inverted wide V.

Cheeks: Prominent, due to the very strong development of the muscles.

Eyes: Oval, set wide apart. The space between the two inner corners of the eyelids is equal to about twice the length of the eye (eye opening). Frank expression. The haw must not be visible.

Colour: hazel to dark brown for a dog with a black mask, lighter colour tolerated but not sought after in dogs with either a brown mask or without a mask.

Ears: Relatively small, of a slightly darker colour than the coat. At its set on, the front of the base of the ear is slightly raised. They must fall down, but not hang limply, the front edge being close to the cheek when the dog is attentive. The tip of the ear is slightly rounded; it must not reach beyond the eye. Set rather high, at the level of the upper line of the skull, thus appearing to accentuate its width even more.

NECK:
Very strong, muscular, almost cylindrical. This skin is supple, ample and loose. The average circumference almost equals that of the head. It is separated from the head by a slightly accentuated transversal furrow, slightly curved. Its upper edge is slightly convex. The well defined dewlap starts at the level of the throat forming folds down to the chest, without hanging exaggeratedly. The neck, very broad at its base, merges smoothly with the shoulders.

BODY:
Topline: Well sustained.

Withers: Well marked.

Back: Broad and muscular.

Loin: Broad. Rather short and solid.

Croup: Moderately sloping down to the root of the tail.

Chest: Powerful, long, deep, broad, let down lower than the elbows. Broad and powerful forechest whose lower line (inter-axillae) is convex towards the bottom. Ribs well let down and well sprung but not barrel shaped. The circumference of the chest must be between 25 cm to 35 cm greater than the height at the withers. Underline and belly: Curved from the deep brisket to the rather tucked up, firm abdomen, being neither pendulous nor too tucked up.

TAIL:
Very thick at the base. Its tip preferably reaching the hock and not below. Carried low, it is neither broken nor kinked but supple. Hanging when the dog is at rest, generally rising by 90° to 120° from that position when the dog is in action, without curving over the back or being curled.

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS:

General appearance: Strong bone structure, legs very muscular.

Shoulders: Powerful, prominent muscles. Slant of shoulder-blade medium (about 45° to the horizontal), angle of the scapular-humeral articulation a little more than 90°.

Upper Arms: Very muscular.

Elbows: In the axis of the body, neither too close to the ribcage nor turned out.

Forearms: Viewed from the front, straight or inclining slightly inwards thus getting closer to the median plane, especially in dogs with a very broad chest. Viewed in profile, vertical.

Metacarpus (Pastern): Powerful. Viewed in profile, slightly sloping. Viewed from the front sometimes slightly outwards compensating for the slight inclination of the forearm inwards.

Forefeet: Strong. Toes tight, nails curved and strong, pads well developed and supple: the Dogue is well up on his toes despite his weight.

HINDQUARTERS:
General appearance: Robust legs with strong bone structure; well angulated. When viewed from behind the hindquarters are parallel and vertical thus giving an impression of power even though the hindquarters are not quite as broad as the forequarters.

Upper Thigh: Very developed and thick with visible muscles.

Stifle: In a parallel plane to the median plane or very slightly out.

Second thigh: Relatively short, muscled, descending low.

Hock: Short, sinewy, angle of the hock joint moderately open.

Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Robust, no dewclaws.

Hind feet: Slightly longer than the front feet, toes tight.

GAIT / MOVEMENT:
Quite supple for a molossoid. When walking the movement is free and supple, close to the ground. Good drive from the hindquarters, good extension of the forelegs, especially when trotting, which is the preferred gait. When the trot quickens, the head tends to drop, the topline inclines towards the front, and the front feet get closer to the median plane while striding out with a long reaching movement of the front legs. Canter with rather important vertical movement. Capable of great speed over short distances by bolting along close to the ground.

SKIN:
Thick and sufficiently loose fitting, without excessive wrinkles.

COAT

HAIR:
Fine, short and soft to the touch.

COLOUR:
Self-coloured, in all shades of fawn, from mahogany to isabella. A good pigmentation is desirable. Limited white patches are permissible on the forechest and the extremities of the limbs.

Mask:
Black mask: The mask is often only slightly spread out and must not invade the cranial region. There may be slight black shading on the skull, ears, neck and top of body. The nose is black.
Brown mask: (used to be called red or bistre). The nose is brown; the eyerims and edges of the lips are also brown. There may be non-invasive brown shading; each hair having a fawn or sandy zone and a brown zone. In this case the inclined parts of the body are a paler colour.
No mask: The coat is fawn: the skin appears red (also formerly called “red mask”). The nose can then be reddish.
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Height should more or less correspond to the perimeter of the skull.

Height at the withers: For males: 60-68 cm.

For females: 58-66 cm. 1 cm under and 2 cm over will be tolerated.

Weight: Dogs: at least 50 kg. Bitches: at least 45 kg. Females: Identical characteristics but less pronounced.

FAULTS:
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on the health and welfare of the dog.

SEVERE FAULTS:
Disproportioned head (too small or exaggerately voluminous).
Bulldoggy hypertype: Flat skull, muzzle measuring less than a quarter of the total length of the head. Swollen fold (roll) behind the nose. Important fold around the head.
Important lateral deviation of the lower jaw.
Incisors constantly visible when the mouth is closed. Very small incisors, unevenly set.
Arched back (convex).
Fused but not deviated vertebrae of the tail.
Forefeet turning inwards (even slightly).
Forefeet turning outwards too much.
Flat thighs.
Angle of hock too open (straight angulation).
Angle of the hock too closed, dog standing under himself behind.
Cow hocks or barrel hocks.
Stilted movement or serious rolling of rear.
Excessive shortness of breath, rasping.
White on tip of tail or on the front part of the forelegs, above the carpus (wrist) and the tarsus (hock) or white, without interruption, on the front of the body from the forechest to the throat.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

Aggressive or overly shy.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Long, narrow head with insufficiently pronounced stop, with a muzzle measuring more than a third of the total length of the head (lack of type in head).
Muzzle parallel to the top line of the skull or downfaced, Roman nose.
Twisted jaw.
Mouth not undershot.
Canines constantly visible when the mouth is closed.
Tongue constantly hanging out when the mouth is closed.
Blue eyes; bulging eyes.
Tail knotted and laterally deviated or twisted (screw tail, kink tail).
Atrophied tail.
Fiddle front and down on pasterns.
Angle of the hock open towards the rear (inverted hock).
White on the head or body, any other colour of the coat than fawn (shaded or not) and in particular brindle or solid brown called “chocolate” (each hair being entirely brown).
Identifiable disabling defect.
N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

Estrela Mountain Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

ESTRELA MOUNTAIN DOG (Cão da Serra da Estrela)

(Effective 31.03.2016)

UTILIZATION:

A livestock guarding dog, watch dog and companion dog; also used for draught work.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

Since remote times, this dog has developed and settled in the Estrela Mountains area, its true origin being lost in time. Nevertheless, it can be considered one of the most ancient breeds in the Iberian Peninsula. It can be found from the foot of the mountains to the summit (approximately 2000m), mainly in the summer, after the snow has melted, when the green pastures are much sought after by the herds, because the excessive heat has dried the grass on the lowlands. The progressive recognition of its aptitudes has led to its diffusion throughout the world since the second half of the 20th century.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

Large, mastiff-type molossoid dog. There are two varieties of coat: long and short. Rustic, substantial, with brisk gait and an impressive attitude. The breed has a lively, calm and expressive look; it is well proportioned; well made with harmonious appearance, which is traditionally how the breed has been recognised since a long time.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

Moderately long (sublongilinear), tending to mediolinear. The depth of the chest is less than half the height at withers. The muzzle and skull should be approximately the same length; if not, the skull should be slightly longer.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

Inseparable companion of the shepherd and faithful flock guardian, bravely protecting it against predators and thieves. Wonderful farm and house guard, distrustful towards strangers and typically docile to its master.

HEAD:

Strong, voluminous and long and slightly convex seen in profile. Well inserted and in good proportion to the body, with the

skull in proportion to the foreface; all parts in perfect harmony. Smooth skin on the skull and cheeks.

CRANIAL REGION:

Skull: Well developed, rounded, with slightly divergent longitudinal superior cranium-facial axes, convex profile, slightly developed superciliary arches with slightly apparent frontal furrow, occipital protuberance not prominent.

Stop: Only slightly marked and at approximately equal distance to the tip of the nose and the occipital protuberance.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose:

Straight and in line with nosebridge; well opened nostrils; large and black.

Muzzle:

Long, tapering to the tip, without being pointed; tends to be straight but very slightly convex at the tip.

Lips:

Well-developed but not thick, well overlapping, not pendulous; mucous membrane of mouth, palate and edges of lips

with intense black pigmentation.

Jaws/Teeth:

Clean cut mouth with well-developed jaws; full dentition with strong, white, well implanted and close-fitting teeth, preferably with scissors bite, pincer bite acceptable.

Eyes:

Medium sized, tending to small, oval shaped, level set, equal in size and well open, with a keen and calm expression; preferably dark amber in colour. Close fitting lids with black rims. Eyebrows slightly apparent.

Ears:

Set on at medium height; hanging, carried falling backwards and laterally against the side of the head, with inner edge visible (so called rose-ear); thin, triangular, rounded at the tip; small in comparison to the body.

NECK:

Short, straight and thick; well set and well connected into the shoulders; with a slight dewlap, not exaggerated.

BODY:

Topline: Straight. Almost level.

Back: Preferably short, well-muscled.

Loin: Short; broad; well-muscled; well connected to the croup.

Croup: Slightly sloping; short, broad and muscled. Height at croup should be equal or slightly superior to the height at the withers.

Chest: Broad; deep; well sprung without being cylindrical; well let down to the elbow or slightly below it.

Underline and belly: The underline should rise gradually but smoothly from sternum to the groin; belly not too wide, in proportion to the animal’s substance and harmoniously connected to the body.

TAIL:

Set on at medium height; long; thick; carried below the horizontal, scimitar-shaped, with a hook at the end. At rest it hangs naturally between the thighs, reaching at least the hock; when excited and in motion, the tail rises above the horizontal, curving upward and forward, sideways and downward, without being carried over the croup. It should be well furnished with hair, and feathered in the long-haired variety.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

General appearance: Upright with strong bone and thick joints, moderately open angulation, with easy movement.

Forearms: Straight, parallel, long, with strong bone and almost cylindrical in shape.

Forefeet: Proportioned, neither too round nor too long, between cat and hare feet (not splayed); thick, tight toes with abundant hair between toes and pads; dark nails, preferably black, well developed; pads thick and hard.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Upright, strong bone with thick joints, moderately open angles, with easy movement.

Hock: Slightly let down; moderately open, neither turned in nor out.

Metatarsus (rear pastern): Vertical, almost cylindrical. Possible presence of single or double dewclaws.

Hind feet: Identical to the forefeet.

GAIT/MOVEMENT:

Sound and easy movement.

COAT

HAIR:

Strong, very abundant, slightly coarse, without excessive harshness, the texture is similar to goat hair.

The undercoat is composed of fine hair, short, abundant and entangled, normally lighter in colour than the outer coat.

- Long-haired variety: Straight or slightly wavy top coat, uneven in some areas. It is shorter and moredense on the limbs, below the elbows and hocks, as well as on the head; on the ears, it becomes gradually shorter from the base to the tip, becoming thinner and softer. It is longer on the tail, which is bushy, thick and feathered, around the neck and throat and on the buttocks, which are abundantly feathered, as well as the back side of the forearms.

- Short-haired variety: Short hair, evenly distributed over the body, slightly shorter on the head and limbs, without feathering.

COLOUR:

The following colours are accepted and considered typical:

- Solid: yellow, fawn and grey in all ranges of colour intensity;

- Wolf Grey: fawn, yellow and grey tones, commonly in lighter and darker shades.

- Brindle: Fawn, yellow or grey base colour with blackish brindling.

In the cranium-facial area, a dark coloured mask is typical. White markings are admitted only at the extremities of fore- and

hind feet and on a small extension on the lower region of neck and chest.

HEIGHT AND WEIGHT:

Height at the withers:

Males: 65-73 cm. Females: 62-69 cm. Tolerance: + 2 cm.

Weight:

Males: 45-60 Kg. Females: 35-45 Kg.

FAULTS:

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be

regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on the health and welfare of the dog.

  • Appearance: General bad appearance, thinness or obesity.
  • Height: Outside the limits set by the standard, but within 2 cm tolerance at the upper limit.
  • Head: Narrow, long and pointed.
  • Eyes: Light coloured.
  • Ears: Incorrectly set, too long, thick or rounded tips. Hanging completely flat.
  • Tail: Carried over the back. Absence of hook.
  • Colour: Absence of dark mask.

SEVERE FAULTS:

  • Behaviour: Animals showing nervous unbalance with signs of shyness.
  • Nose: Pale coloured nostrils, partly unpigmented nose.
  • Ears: Cropped.
  • Tail: Docked or rudimentary.
  • Coat:
  • Hair somewhat different from the described type.
  • Height:

Males: Under 65 cm or over 75 cm.

Females: Under 62 cm or over 71 cm

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS :

  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Type: Atypical.
  • Head: Very narrow, very long and very pointed completely lacking molossoid type.
  • Jaws: Undershot or overshot.
  • Eyes: Wall eyes or difference in size.
  • Tail: Anurous.
  • Coat: Hair completely atypical.
  • Colour: Any colour not mentioned in the standard. Albinism.

N.B.:

  • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

 

Fila Brasileiro

Posted in Working Group

Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION:

Watch Dog.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

Typically a molossoid breed. Powerful bones, rectangular and compact structure, but harmonious and well proportioned. Displays, together with a massive body, a great amount of concentrated agility which is easily perceived. The sexual dimorphism must be very well defined and obvious (feminine females, masculine males).

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:
The muzzle is slightly shorter than the skull.
The length of the body, measured from the point of the sternum to the point of buttock, – exceeds of the height at the withers with 15%.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

Courage, determination and outstanding braveness are part of its characteristics. With its owners and family it is docile, obedient and extremely tolerant with children. Its loyalty is proverbial, insistently seeking the company of its master. 
One of its characteristics is its aloofness towards strangers. It displays a calm disposition, distinctive self-assurance and self-confidence, remaining unperturbed by strange noises or circumstances. An unsurpassed guardian of properties, it also instinctively indulges in big game hunting and cattle herding. While one of its characteristics is a natural aloofness towards strangers especially in its own territory, it must be susceptible to controlled handling, especially in the show ring.

In repose it is calm; noble and full of self-assurance. Never displaying a bored or absent expression. When alert, its expression should reflect determination conveyed by a firm, penetrating look.

HEAD:

The head of the Fila is big, heavy and massive, always proportionate to the whole body. From a top view it resembles a trapezoid figure into which a pear shape is inserted.

CRANIAL REGION:
Skull: The profile of the skull shows a smooth curve from the stop to the occiput, which is well defined and protuberant especially in puppies. From a front view it is large, broad with the upper line slightly curved. Lateral lines come down almost vertically, in a slight continuous curve narrowing towards the muzzle. 
Stop: From a front view it is practically nonexistent. The median groove is slight and runs up smoothly to approximately the centre of the skull. Seen from the side, the stop is only slightly pronounced and virtually only formed by the well-developed eyebrows.

FACIAL REGION:
Nose:  Well developed, broad nostrils not occupying entirely the width of the upper jaw. Colour: black.
Muzzle:  Strong, broad and deep, always in harmony with the skull. Fairly deep at the root but not deeper than long. Seen from above, it is full under the eyes, slightly narrowing towards the middle of the muzzle and again broadening slightly to the front line. Seen from the side, the muzzle is straight or has a Roman line, but never turned up. The front line of the muzzle is almost perpendicular to the bridge of the nose with a slight depression right under the nose.
Lips:  The upper lip is thick and pendulous and overlaps the lower lip in a perfect curve; thus the lower line of the muzzle is almost parallel to the upper line. The lower lip is tight and firm to the fangs and from there on it is loose with dented borders ending at the corners which are always apparent. The muzzle has a good depth at the root but without surpassing the length. Edges of the lips form a deep inverted “U”.
Teeth/jaws: The teeth are significantly wider than long. Strong and white. Upper incisors are broad at their root and taper to the edge. Canines are powerful, well set and well apart. The ideal bite is the scissor bite.
Eyes:  From medium to large size, almond shaped, spaced well apart, medium to deep set. Permissible colours - from dark brown to yellow, always in accordance to the colour of the coat. However a darker colour is preferred. Due to the loose skin many individuals present drooping lower eyelids which are not considered a fault as such; a detail accentuates the melancholic expression which is typical of the breed. 
Ears: Pendant, large, thick, V-shaped. Broad at the base and tapering to the ends. Rounded tips. Attached at the back of the skull, in line with the eyes when in repose. When roused, the ears are above the original position. The root is oblique, with the front edge higher than the back edge. Falling over the cheeks or folded back showing the inside (rose ear).

NECK:

Extraordinarily strong and muscled giving the impression of a short neck. Slightly curved at the upper side and well detached from the skull. Dewlaps at the throat.

BODY:

Strong, broad and deep, covered by thick and loose skin. 
The thorax is longer than the abdomen. 
Topline:  Withers, in sloping line, are set well apart from each other due to the distance between the shoulder blades. Withers are set lower than the croup. After the withers, the upper line changes direction, ascending smoothly to the croup. Back line shows no tendency to sway or roach back.
Loin/Flanks:  Shorter and not so deep as the thorax, showing distinctly the separation of the two component parts. In females the lower part of the flank is more developed. Seen from above, the loin is narrower than the thorax and croup but should not form a waistline.
Croup:  Broad, long, sloping at angle of approximately 30 degrees to the horizontal and ending in a smooth curve. The croup is set a little higher than the withers. From a back view, the croup is ample almost as wide as the chest and can be even broader for females.
Chest:  Well sprung ribs though not interfering with the position of shoulder. Deep and broad chest reaching to the level of the elbows. Well pronounced brisket.
Lower line:  A long chest and parallel to the ground in all its extension. Slightly tucked up but never whippety.

TAIL:

Very wide at the root, medium set, tapering rapidly to reach the hocks. When the dog is alert, the tail is raised high and the curve at the extremity is more accentuated. Should not be carried curled over the back nor touch it.

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS:

General Appearance: The length of the leg, from the ground to the elbow, should be half of the height from the ground to the withers.
Shoulder:  The shoulder structure should be composed by two bones of equal length (scapula and humerus); the former at 45 degrees to the horizontal and the latter 90 degrees to the scapula.

The scapula-humeral articulation forms the point of shoulder which is situated at the same level but slightly behind the point of sternum. In the ideal position, the point of shoulder should be half way from elbow to withers. An imaginary perpendicular line coming down from the withers should cut the elbow and reach the foot.
Forearm:  The limbs must be parallel. Strong and straight bones.
Carpal joint (wrist):  Strong and apparent.
Metacarpus (pastern): Short, slightly sloping.
Feet: Strong and well arched toes not too close together. The dog stands on thick toes and pads which are long, broad and deep. In the correct position, the feet should point forward. Strong, dark nails; white nails permissible when the corresponding toes are white. 

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Less heavy boned than forelegs but never appearing thin compared to the overall build. Hindlegs are parallel.
Upper thigh: Broad with curved outline shaped by strong muscles coming from the ilium and ischium which design the curve of the buttocks and for this reason the ischium must have a good length.
Tarsus (hock):  Strong.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern):  Slightly sloping, longer than the metacarpus. Moderately angled stifle and hock.
Feet:  A little more oval than the forefeet but the otherwise identical. Should not present dewclaws.

GAIT/MOVEMENT:

 Long and elastic feline-like strides whose principal characteristic is the pace; a two beat lateral gait in which the legs of each side move back and forth exactly as a pair (“camel’s pace”) causing a rolling or rocking motion of the thorax and hips accentuated by the tail when carried erect. When walking, it carries the head lower than the back line. The trot is smooth, free and effortless with a long, powerful and reaching stride. The gallop is powerful, attaining unsuspected speed for such a large and heavy dog. Due to its articulations, typical of molossoids, the movements of the Fila not only give the impression but actually allow him to make sudden and rapid changes of direction.

SKIN:

One of the most important breed characteristics is the thick, loose skin over the whole body, chiefly at the neck forming pronounced dewlaps and many times it can extend to the brisket and abdomen. Some individuals present a fold at the sides of the head, also at the withers running down to the shoulders. If the dog is in repose, the head should be free from wrinkles. When alert, the dog raises its ears and the contraction of the skin on the skull forms small longitudinal wrinkles between the ears.

COAT
HAIR: Short, smooth, dense and close to the body.

COLOUR:

Brindle, fawn and black. A black mask may or may not be present. In all permitted colours white marks are allowed on the feet, chest and tip of tail. White markings on other parts of the coat are considered a fault.
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Height at Withers:
Males: from 65 cm (25.6 ins) to 75 cm (29.5 ins) at the shoulder. Females: from 60 cm (23.6 ins) to 70 cm (27.5 ins) at the shoulder.
Weight:
Males: minimum: 50 kgs (100 pounds) Females: minimum: 40 kgs (80 pounds).

FAULTS:

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and it effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

  • Level bite
  • Short muzzle.
  • Small ears.
  • Highly set ears.
  • Excessively light coloured eyes.
  • Wrinkles when the dog is in repose.
  • Undershot bite.
  • Double chin (folds in front of dewlap).
  • Sway back.
  • Very narrow croup.
  • Curled tail carried over the back.
  • Chest insufficiently deep.
  • Pronounced deviation of pastern or rear pastern.
  • Over angulated hindquarters (sickle hocks).
  • Short steps (poor reach).

SERIOUS FAULTS:

  • Apathy and timidity.
  • Square build.
  • Small head.
  • Pronounced stop seen from the front.
  • Short upper lip.
  • Protruding eyes. Round eyes. Lack of pigmentation on eyelids.
  • Lack of 2 teeth except PM1 (first premolars).
  • Lack of dewlaps.
  • Roach back or level back.
  • Excessive tuckup.
  • Light bones. Lack of substance.
  • Cow hocks.
  • Lack of angulation at the hindquarters (straight hocks).
  • White markings exceeding 1/4th (one fourth) of the body.
  • Height exceeding the maximum.

DISQUALIFING FAULTS:

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Flesh-coloured nose.
  • Overshot bite.
  • Undershot bite with teeth visible when the mouth is closed.
  • Lack of 1 canine or 1 molar except the 3rd one.
  • Wall eyes.
  • Cropped ears or docked tail.
  • Croup lower than the withers.
  • Dog not walking at camel’s pace.
  • Skin not loose and supple.
  • All dogs which are white, mouse-grey, dappled, black and tan, blue.
  • Males under 65 cm and females under 60 cm of height at the shoulder.
  • Use of artificial methods to produce certain effects, albinism, lack of type.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.                   

German Pinscher

Posted in Working Group

 

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION:

Watch and Companion Dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

The smooth haired Pinscher represents a very old breed which was mentioned in the German Stud Book for dogs in 1880 already. He has the same ancestors as the Schnauzer which was also called the rough coated Pinscher. From the beginning the smooth haired Pinschers differed from the rough haired specimen in their colour and their short coat. They were mostly black with light brown markings, self-coloured in various shades of brown to red, pepper and salt or simply blue-grey to black.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

The German Pinscher is smooth-haired, medium in size with proud carriage, flowing outlines, elegant and square build. He is strong like the Schnauzer. Due to his short, smooth coat, his well-developed muscles are clearly visible especially when he moves.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:
In relation of length to height, his build should be as square as possible.
The length of the head (measured from the tip of the nose to the occiput) corresponds to half the length of the topline (measured from the withers to the set on of the tail).

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT:  His lively, spirited, self-assured and evenly tempered nature, combined with intelligence and endurance, makes him an agreeable family, watch and companion dog.

HEAD
Cranial Region:
Skull:  Strong, elongated, without markedly protruding occiput. The forehead is flat and runs parallel to the bridge of nose.
Stop:  Slight, yet clearly defined.
Facial Region
Nose:  Nose leather well developed and always black.
Muzzle:  Ending in a blunt wedge. Bridge of nose straight.
Lips:  Black, smooth and tight-fitting to the jaws; corners of mouth closed.
Jaws/Teeth:  Strong upper and lower jaw. The complete scissor bite (42 pure white teeth according to the dentition formula) is strong and firmly closing. The chewing muscles are strongly developed without pronounced cheeks interfering with the smooth outline.
Eyes:  Dark, oval with black pigmented, close fitting eyelids.
Ears:  Drop ears, set high, V-shaped, with inner edges lying close to the cheeks, turned forward towards temples. Folds parallel, should not be above the top of the skull.

NECK: 

Nobly curved, not too short. Blending smoothly into the withers without any marked set on. Dry, without dewlap or throatiness. Throat skin tight-fitting without folds.

BODY
Topline:  Slightly sloping from withers towards rear.
Withers:  Forming the highest point in topline.
Back:  Strong, short and taut.
Loins:  Short, strong and deep. The distance from last rib to hip is short to make the dog appear compact.
Croup:  Slightly rounded, imperceptibly blending into tail set on.
Chest:  Moderately broad, oval in diameter, reaching to the elbows. The forechest is distinctly marked by the point of the sternum.
Underline and Belly – flanks not too tucked up, forming a nicely curved line with the underside of the ribcage.

TAILNatural; a sabre or sickle carriage is sought after.

[*refer note below]

LIMBS
Forequarters: 
General appearance:  Seen from the front the front legs are strong, straight and not close together, seen from the side the forearms are straight.
Shoulders: The shoulder blade lies close against the rib cage and is well muscled on both sides of the shoulder bone, protruding over the points of the thoracic vertebrae. As sloping as possible and well laid back, forming an angle of appr. 50º to the horizontal.
Upper Arm: Lying close to the body, strong and well muscled, forming an angle of 95º to 100º to the shoulder blade.
Elbows:  Correctly fitting, turning neither in nor out.
Forearm:  Strongly developed and well muscled. Completely straight seen from the front and the side.
Carpal Joint:  Strong and firm.
Pastern:  Strong and slightly springy. Seen from the front, vertical, seen from the side, slightly sloping towards the ground. 
Forefeet:  Short and round, toes well-knit and arched (cat feet), pads resistant, nails short, black and strong.
Hindquarters: 
General appearance:  Standing obliquely when seen from the side, standing parallel, but not close together, when seen from the rear.
Upper Thigh:  Moderately long, broad, strongly muscled.
Stifle: Turning neither in nor out.
Lower Thigh:  Long and strong, sinewy, running into a strong hock.
Hock:  Markedly angulated, strong, firm, turning neither in nor out.
Metatarsus:  Vertical to the ground.
Hind Feet:  Somewhat longer than the forefeet. Toes well-knit and arched. Nails short and black.

GAIT/MOVEMENT:

The German Pinscher is a trotter. His back remains firm and rather steady in movement. The movement is harmonious, sure, powerful and uninhibited with good length of stride. Typical of the trot is a ground covering, relaxed, fluent movement with strong drive and free front extension.

SKIN:

Tight fitting over the whole body.

COAT
Hair:  Short and dense, smooth, close and shiny without bald patches.
Colour:
Self coloured:  Deer red, reddish-brown to dark red brown
Black and Tan:  Lacquer black with red or brown markings
The aim is for markings as dark, as rich and as clearly defined as possible. The markings are distributed as follows: above the eyes, at the underside of the throat, on the pastern, on the feet, at the inside of the hind legs and under the root of the tail. Two even, clearly separated triangles on the chest.

SIZE AND WEIGHT
Height at withers: Dogs and bitches 45 to 50cm. 
Weight: Dogs and bitches 14 to 20kg.

FAULTS:
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

Particularly:

  • Clumsy or light in build. Too low or too high on leg.
  • Heavy or round skull.
  • Wrinkles on forehead.
  • Short, pointed or narrow muzzle.
  • Pincer bite.
  • Light, too small or too large eyes.
  • Ears set low or very long, unevenly carried.
  • Strongly protruding cheekbones (cheekiness).
  • Too long, tucked up or soft back.
  • Roach back.
  • Croup falling away.
  • Long feet.
  • Pacing movement.
  • Hackney gait.
  • Thin coat.
  • Black trace on the back, dark saddle and lightened or pale coat.
  • Over or undersize up to 1cm.
  • SERIOUS FAULTS
  • Lack of sexual type (i.e. doggy bitch)
  • Light appearance.
  • Apple head.
  • Lines of head not parallel.
  • Elbows turning out.
  • Straight or open hocked hindlegs.
  • Hocks turning out.
  • Over or undersize by more than 1cm but less than 3cm.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Malformation of any kind
  • Definitely inverse sexual type
  • Faults in mouth, such as over or undershot or wry mouth
  • Severe faults in individual parts, such as faults in structure
  • coat or colour
  • Over or undersize by more than 3cm

N.B.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked or formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either. (Amended DR/Feb 2018)