News

10.09.2021 | Important Notice to KUSA Members

Termination of the use of the SA Post Office as KUSA’s service provider for the despatch of documents

Relocation of the KUSA Office – Courier Services

Due to the high volume of returned, undelivered, or lost mail, it is no longer viable for KUSA to make use of the South African Post Office (SAPO) in the despatch of documents.  Postnet offer reliable courier services – Postnet2Postnet Pre-paid @ R99.00*, Postnet2Door Non-Express @ R162.00* (Major Centres) and Postnet2Door Non-Express @ R275.00*(Regional Centres), which are all trackable.

(*subject to change)

Please be advised that, with immediate effect, the following services will be subject to a payment of a Courier Fee:

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16.09.21 | The Judges Education Council (JEC) – Support Officer

When Mrs. Gael Morison recently emigrated to the UK, she resigned from her position as Support Officer of the JEC. As the JEC’s Support Officer, Mrs. Morison fulfilled the essential function of signing off Learner Judges’ Portfolios and officiated as External Examiner of requested re-marks of Learner Judges’ exams.

Until such time Fedco is in a position to appoint a replacement Support Officer, experienced All-breeds Judge, Dr. Heidi Rolfes, has agreed to fulfil the functions previously performed by Mrs. Morison until further notice.

The JEC is extremely grateful to Dr. Rolfes for being prepared to take time out from her busy career as a practising scientist to devote her expertise as former academic to assist with the education of Learner Judges on an interim basis.

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Working Group

Mastino Napoletano (Neapolitan Mastiff)

Posted in Working Group

 

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION: Protection and guard dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: The Neapolitan Mastiff is a descendant of the great Roman Mastiff described by Columelle in the first century A.D. in his book de re rustica. Widespread all over Europe by the Roman legions, with which he has fought, he is the ancestor of numerous mastiff breeds in other European countries. The breed has survived for many centuries in the countryside at the foot of the Vesuvius Mountain and in general in the region of Naples. The Neapolitan Mastiff has been re-selected since 1947, thanks to the tenacity and devotion of a group of dog lovers.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: Large, heavy and massive dog with a bulky appearance. The length of body to exceed the height at the withers.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The length of the body is 15% more than the height at the withers. The ratio skull-muzzle is as 2 to

1. Length of head is about 3.8/10 of the height at the withers. Neck is rather short. The circumference of the thorax is ample.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT: Steady and loyal, not aggressive. Guard dog of property and its inhabitants, always vigilant, intelligent, noble and majestic.

HEAD Short and massive, with the skull wide at the level of the zygomatic arches; Ample skin with wrinkles and folds, the most typical and best marked goes from the outer palpebral angle down to the lip angle. The upper longitudinal axes of the skull and the muzzle are parallel.

CRANIAL REGION: Skull: The skull is broad and flat, particularly between the ears, seen from the front it is slightly convex in its fore part. The zygomatic arches are very prominent, but with flat muscles. The protuberances of the frontal bones are well developed; the frontal furrow is marked; the occipital crest is barely visible. Stop: Well defined.

FACIAL REGION: Nose: Set in the prolongation of the muzzle, must not protrude beyond the outer vertical line of the lips; must be voluminous with large, well-opened nostrils. The colour is according to colour of the coat: black for black subjects, dark grey in dogs of other colours, and chestnut for brown coats. Muzzle: Very broad and deep; the width is about equal to the length. The length must be equal to a third of the length of the head. The lateral sides are parallel so that, seen from the front, the shape of the muzzle is practically square. The depth of the muzzle is about twice as much as that of the

length. Lips: Fleshy, thick and full. Upper lips, seen from the front, form an inverted “V” at their meeting point. The lower, lateral profile of the muzzle is shaped by the upper lips; their lowest part is the corner of the lips, with visible mucous membranes, situated on the vertical from the external angle of the eye. Jaws/Teeth: Powerful with strong jawbones and dental arches joining perfectly. Lower jaw must be well developed in its width. Teeth white well developed, regularly aligned and complete in number. Scissor bite, i.e. upper incisors closely overlapping the lower ones in close contact, set straight to the jaw, or pincer bite, i.e. upper incisors meet edge to edge with the lower incisors. The external margin of the upper incisors must be in close contact to the internal margin of the lower incisors. Reverse scissors bite tolerated. Eyes: Set well apart on an equal frontal level; rather round in shape but never protruding or too deep set. Colour of iris usually darker than coat colour, except in coats of diluted shades where the eye colour is lighter. Skin folds never to interfere with the eyes. Ears: Small in relation to the size of the dog, of triangular shape, set above the zygomatic arch, flat and laying close to the cheeks. The ears are natural.

NECK: The upper profile is slightly convex. Rather short and conical trunk shaped, well muscled. Lower profile of the neck is well endowed with loose skin which forms a double dewlap well separated, but not exaggerated; dewlap starts at level of the lower jaw and does not reach below middle of the neck.

BODY: The length of the body exceeds by 15% the height at the withers. Top line: Top line of the back is straight. Withers: Wide, long and not very prominent. Back: Broad and in length about 1/3 of the height at the withers. The lumbar region must be harmoniously united with the back and muscled and well developed in width. Loin: Broad, strong and well muscled. The hipbones are prominent to the extent of reaching the top lumbar line. Chest: Broad with well-developed chest muscles. The ribcage is ample, with long and well-sprung ribs. The circumference of the thorax is ample. The tip of the sternum is situated at the level of point of shoulder.

TAIL: Broad and thick at the root; strong, tapering slightly towards the tip. In length it reaches the articulation of the hock. At rest it is carried hanging and curved in sabre fashion, in action lifted horizontally or only slightly higher than the top line.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS: General appearance: The forelegs, from the ground to the point of the elbow, seen in profile and from the front, are vertical with strong bone structure in proportion with the size of the dog. Shoulder: Long and well laid back, the muscles are well developed, long and well defined. Upper arm: Well angulated to shoulder blade and with significant musculature. Elbow: Must be parallel to the median plane of the body, i.e. neither turned in nor out. Forearm: Length is almost the same as that of the upper arm. Placed in perfect vertical position. Strong bone structure with lean and well-developed muscles. Carpus (Wrist): Broad, lean and without nodosity, continues the vertical line of the forearm. Metacarpus (Pastern): Continues the vertical line of the forearm. Moderate angulation and length. Forefeet: Of round shape, large, toes well arched and well knit. The pads are hard and well pigmented. The nails are strong, curved and of a dark colour.

HINDQUARTERS: General appearance: On the whole they must be powerful and sturdy, in proportion with the size of the dog and capable of the required propulsion in movement. Thigh: In length measuring 1/3 of the height at the withers and the obliqueness is about 60°. Broad with thick, prominent and clearly distinct muscles. The thighbone and the hipbone (femur and coxal) form an angle of 90°. Stifle (Knee): The femoro-tibial angle is about 110°–115°. Lower thigh: Length is slightly inferior to that of the thigh and of an obliqueness of 50°–55°, with strong bone structure and well visible muscles. Hock joint: The tibio-tarsal articulation form an angle of 140°–145°.

Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Strong and lean, almost cylindrical in shape, perfectly straight and parallel and fairly low set. Hind feet: Smaller than the forefeet, round with well-knit toes. Pads dry, hard and pigmented. Nails strong, curved and of dark colour.

GAIT / MOVEMENT: This constitutes a typical characteristic of the breed. At the walk, the gait is of feline type, like the steps of a lion. It is slow and also resembles that of a bear. The trot is distinguished by a strong thrust of the hindquarters and a good extension of the forequarters. The dog rarely gallops; usual gait is walk and trot. Pacing is tolerated.

SKIN: Thick, abundant and loose all over the body, particularly on the head where it forms numerous folds and wrinkles, and at the lower part of the neck where it forms a double dewlap. Never in abundance to the extent to interfere with the dogs health and well­being.

COAT

Hair: Short and hard, dense, of the same length all over. Uniform short length that measures 1.5 cm maximum. Must not show any trace of fringing.

Colour: Preferred colours are: grey, lead grey and black, but also brown, fawn and deep fawn (red deer). Permissible is a little white patch on the chest and/or on the tip of the toes. All these colours may be brindled; hazel, dove-grey and isabella shades are tolerated.

SIZE AND WEIGHT: Height at the withers: Males: 65–75cm.

Females: 60–68cm.

Males: 60–70kg. Females: 50–60kg.

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

SEVERE FAULTS:

  • Pronounced undershot bite.
  • Tail carried too high.
  • Size bigger or smaller than the limits allowed.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall bedisqualified.
  • Accentuated convergence or divergence of the cranio-facial axes.
  • Topline of muzzle concave or convex or very aquiline (Roman nose).
  • Total depigmentation of nose.
  • Overshot bite.
  • Entropion / ectropion.
  • Wall eye; total de-pigmentation of both rims of eyelids; cross eyed.
  • Absence of wrinkles, folds and dewlap.
  • Absence of tail whether congenital or artificial.
  • Extensive white patches; white markings on the head.

N.B.:

  • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation, should be used for breeding.               

                                       

Kangal Çoban Köpeği (Kangal Shepherd Dog)

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.           

UTILIZATION:

Shepherd Dog used for guarding sheep. Active breed originally used as a guard dog for sheep; hard working; capable of enduring extremes of heat and cold.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

Although each nation eagerly designates a breed history for their national breeds, rarely is it possible to come up with an accurate one, especially when it comes to livestock protection dogs. The Kangal Dog’s history is also one of them. However, it is a breed deeply imbedded in today’s Turkish culture. It is Turkey’s highly praised National Dog. It wouldn’t be too unrealistic to say that the Turkish people migrating from Central Asia whose livelihood primarily relied on nomadic animal husbandry brought their strong livestock protection dogs along with them. It is a well-known fact that the dogs protecting sheep and goats in Central Asia are of various colours. The question regarding the origins of the Kangal Dog we know today should be about what caused them to have a more unifying standard in terms of type and especially colour in Turkey. It is believed that lies with the area they are highly populated in Eastern Turkey and the kind of sheep breed they are known to protect: Akkaraman Sheep.

They both seem to share the same black mask on a dun coloured coat across the vast steppes of Eastern Turkey surrounded by high mountains, creating relatively an isolated population. This suggests a perfect camouflage and adaptation for both. The breed name, Kangal seems to come from the town of Kangal off Sivas where the breed attracted worldwide attention with exceptionally high quality and uniform specimens.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

Large, upstanding, powerfully built, livestock guarding dog with dark mask. Not aggressive but good guardian. Capable of great speed. The Kangal is a molossus type dog. Its constitution is robust. Compact body is covered with thick and medium length of hair. Body is of rectangular shape.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

Profile lines of the muzzle and the skull are divergent. Body length is 10-12% longer than height at the withers. Depth of chest is approximately 50% of height at the withers.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

Steady and bold without aggression, naturally independent, very intelligent and tractable. Proud and confident. Loyal and affectionate to owners, but wary of strangers when on duty.

HEAD

CRANIAL REGION:

Large, but in proportion to the body.

Skull:  Broad between ears, slightly narrowing toward the stop. Slightly rounded. Length of the skull is greater than width of the skull.

Stop: Slight.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: Black.

Muzzle: Shorter than the skull. Muzzle length is 40-44% of head length. Profile blunt, tapering slightly to the end. Muzzle line from stop towards the nose is gently sloped.

Lips:  Very slightly pendulous, black-edged. Edge of upper lip not lower than the profile of the underjaw. Corner of mouth tight.

Jaws/Teeth: Teeth strong, scissor bite is preferred, level or reverse scissor bite accepted, lack of P1 and M3 not to be penalized.

Cheeks:

Well muscled, cheek bones are visible but not pronounced.

Eyes:   Almond shaped medium to large, size in proportion to size of skull, set well apart, showing no haw. Dark brown to light brown, the darker, the better. Eye rims black.

Ears:  Medium sized, triangular in shape, rounded at tip, pendant with front edge close to cheek, higher when alert. Cropped ears (where allowed) are evaluated as the non-cropped ones.

NECK:

Slightly arched, powerful, muscular, length is almost equal to length of head, rather thick. Can have very slight dewlap. Neck is not carried in upright position.

BODY:

Powerful, well muscled, never flat in the sides.

Top line:  Slightly arched over loins. Croup a bit higher than height at the withers.

Withers:  Powerful, slightly prominent. 

Back:  Medium length, strong, well muscled

Loin:  Slightly arched.

Croup:  Of medium length. Muscular, well connected to the loins. Sloping at almost 30 degrees.

Chest:  Deep, reaching the point of the elbows, ribs well sprung, ribcage sufficiently long.

Underline and belly:  Belly slightly tucked up.

TAIL:

Long, reaching a bit under the hock, Upper line of the tail forms a continuous line with the croup line when relaxed carried low with close curl at the tip; when alert carried high and curled over the back, especially on males.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

General appearance:  Set well apart, straight and well boned; of good length.

Shoulder:  Well muscled, oblique.

Upper arm:  Must be muscular and strong. Close to the body.

Elbow:  Close to the sides but allowing free movement.

Forearm:  Harmonic length with body, strong boned, straight.

Carpus (Wrist):  Strong.

Metacarpus (Pastern):  Strong, slightly sloping when viewed from the side.

Forefeet:  Strong, with thick pads and well arched toes. Nails short and preferably black.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance:  Powerful, not overloaded with muscles. Hind legs vertical when seen from behind.

Thigh:  Long

Stifle (Knee):  Well angulated.

Lower thigh:  Muscular, strong.

Hock joint:  Firm, wide. Moderate angulation.

Metatarsus (Rear pastern):  Well developed, moderate length and stands vertical to the ground. Parallel to each other.

Hind feet: Strong, with thick pads and well arched toes. Nails short and preferably black. Presence of dewclaws is accepted.

GAIT / MOVEMENT:  

Very noticeable, line of head, neck and body at the same level when walking, movement even, supple and long reaching, giving impression of stalking, with great power. Pacing acceptable at slow speed.

SKIN: 

Of medium thickness, well adhering to the head and body. Slight dewlap is tolerated. Skin colour depends on hair colour, but skin must be pigmented.

COAT:

Hair:  3 to 7 cm, thick and harsh guard coat, dense undercoat. Length variations in coat may be possible according to weather conditions. Longer and thicker on neck, shoulders and thighs.

COLOUR:  Whole body should be one colour. Can be from fawn to wolf sable. White or lighter colour on chest is not considered as a fault if is not larger than 10 cm of width. White colour on throat is not preferred. White colour on paws and feet can be seen. Less white is preferred. Must have black mask. Mask covers the muzzle and it is lighter on the skull. Ears are dark. It can be a dark line on half or one third of tail from tip to base. White tip on tail is accepted.

SIZE AND WEIGHT

Height at the withers: Males: 72 to 78cm. with + /-2cm of tolerance Females: 65 to 73cm. with +/-2cm of tolerance 

Males: 48 to 60kg Females: 40 to 50kg

FAULTS:

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

SEVERE FAULTS:

  • Skull wider than its length from occiput to stop.
  • Lower croup height than height at the withers.
  • Too light or too heavy construction for working condition.
  • Untypical tail shape.
  • White patch on the neck.
  • White line on the muzzle and mask
  • DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:
  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Untypical specimen.
  • Overshot bite.
  • Undershot exceeding reverse scissors bite.
  • Muzzle too short (one third of the total length of the head).
  • Coat very short and smooth, devoid of undercoat.
  • No mask on muzzle.
  • Brown nose and pigmentation.
  • Different coloured eyes.

N.B:

  • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation, should be used for breeding.

Note: CROPPED EARS – SCHEDULE 2 Regulation 7

Any dog with cropped ears born within the jurisdiction of the KUSA, imported into it and cropped within it, shall not be registered or recorded by the Kennel Union and if any such dog is registered or recorded in contravention of this Regulation, upon discovery, its registration or recording shall be cancelled.

7.1. Any dog with ears cropped before importation into the KUSA area of jurisdiction is not eligible for competition at any Kennel Union event.        

                

Do-Khyi (Tibetan Mastiff)

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

ORIGIN : Tibet (China).

PATRONAGE : FCI.

UTILIZATION: A companion, watch and guard dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: The Tibetan Mastiff (Do Khyi) is an ancient working breed of the nomad herders of the Himalaya and a traditional guardian of the Tibetan monasteries. It has been surrounded by great myth since its first discovery in antiquity. From the mentioning by Aristoteles (384-322 b.C.) to the famous writings of Marco Polo, who went to Asia in 1271, all historical reports praise the natural strength and impressiveness of the Tibetan Mastiff- both physically and mentally. Even its bark has been described as a unique and highly treasured feature of the breed. Leading European cynologists of the past, like Martin and Youatt, Megnin, Beckmann, Siber as well as Strebel and Bylandt have intensively covered the Tibetan Mastiff, as they had been fascinated by its origin and function in the Tibetan culture. Some even considered the breed to be the very forefather of all large mountain and mastiff breeds. One of the first known Tibetan Mastiffs to reach Western shores was a male sent to Queen Victoria by Lord Hardinge (then Viceroy of India) in 1847. Later in the 1880s, Edward VII (then Prince of Wales) took two dogs back to England. An early recorded litter of Tibetan Mastiffs was born in 1898 in the Berlin Zoo.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: Powerful, heavy, well built, with good bone. Impressive; of solemn and earnest appearance. Combines majestic strength, robustness and endurance; fit to work in all climate conditions. Slow to mature, only reaching its best at 2-3 years in females and at least 4 years in males.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

Skull measured from occiput to stop equal to muzzle from stop to end of nose but muzzle may be a little shorter.

Body slightly longer than height at withers.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT: Independent. Protective. Commands respect. Most loyal to his family and territory.

HEAD: Broad, heavy and strong. In adults a wrinkle may extend from above the eyes down to the corner of mouth.

CRANIAL REGION:  

Skull: Large, very slightly rounded, with strongly pronounced occiput.

Stop: Well defined.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: Broad, as dark as possible depending on coat colour, well opened nostrils.

Muzzle: Fairly broad, well filled and deep. End of muzzle square.

Lips: Well developed and covering the underjaw.                    

Jaws/Teeth: Jaws strong with perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper incisors closely overlapping the lower incisors and set square to the jaws. Level bite acceptable. Dentition fits tightly.

Eyes: Medium size, any shade of brown and in accordance with coat colour, the darker the better. Set well apart, oval and slightly slanting. Eyelids tightly fitting the eyeball. Expression of dignity.

Ears: Medium size, triangular, pendant, set between the level of the skull and the eye, dropping forward and hanging close to head; carried forward when alert. Ear leathers covered with soft, short hair.

NECK: Strong, well muscled, arched. Not too much dewlap. Covered by thick upstanding mane, not so pronounced in bitches.

BODY: Strong.

Back: Straight, muscular.

Croup: Broad and rather flat.

Chest: Rather deep, of moderate breadth, with good spring of rib, to give heart-shaped ribcage. Brisket reaching to below elbows.

TAIL: Medium length. Set high on line with top of back, carried high, loosely curled over back, when dog alert or in motion; well feathered.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

General appearance: Straight, well angulated, well covered all over with strong hair.

Shoulders: Well laid, muscular.

Elbows: Neither turned in nor out.

Forearms: Straight. Strong bone.

Metacarpus (Pasterns): Strong, slightly sloping.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Powerful, muscular, with good angulation. Seen from behind, hindlegs parallel.

Upper thigh: Rather long; strong, with good hard muscles, but not bulging.

Stifle: Well bent

Hock: Strong, low set.  

Dewclaws optional.

FEET: Fairly large, strong, round and compact, with good feathering between well-arched toes.  

GAIT / MOVEMENT: Powerful, but always light and elastic: with good reach and drive. When speed increases tends to single track. When walking appears very deliberate. Capable of functioning over a varied terrain with stamina and suppleness.

COAT

HAIR: Quality of greater importance than quantity. Coat harsh, thick, top coat not too long, with dense and rather wolly undercoat in cold weather which becomes rather sparse in warmer months. Males carry noticeably more coat than females. Hair fine but harsh, straight and off-standing. Never silky, curly or wavy. Neck and shoulders heavily coated, giving mane-like appearance. Tail bushy and well feathered; hindlegs well feathered on upper rear parts.

COLOUR: Rich black, with or without tan marking; blue, with or without tan markings; gold, from rich fawn to deep red, sable. All colours to be as pure as possible. Tan ranges from a rich chestnut to a lighter colour. White star on breast permissible. Minimal white markings on feet acceptable. Tan markings appear above eyes, on lower part of legs and underside of tail. Tan markings on muzzle; spectacle markings tolerated around eyes.

SIZE:

Height at the withers: Dogs: 66cm (26in) minimum,.

Bitches: 61cm (24in) minimum..  

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

SEVERE FAULTS:

Lacking physical condition and fitness.

Head light or heavily wrinkled.

Pendulous flews.

Pronounced dewlap.

Large and/or low set ears.

Light eyes or staring expression.

Weak pigmentation, particularly of nose.

Barrelled ribs.

Tightly curled tail over hips.

Over angulated or straight hindquarters.

Heavy constrained movement.

Under minimum height, tolerance 2 cm.

ELIMINATING FAULTS:

Aggressive or overly shy.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

Undershot or overshot mouth.

All other colours than above mentioned e.g. white, cream, grey, brown (liver), lilac, brindle, particolours.

N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.                   

Canadian Eskimo Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION: For centuries this breed was used as a draught animal and was capable of pulling between 45 and 80 kg. per dog, covering distances from 15 to 70 miles per day. He was also used as a hunting dog, to locate seal breathing holes for the Inuit hunters. As a hunting dog he would also attack and hold at bay musk ox and polar bear for the Inuit hunters. In the summer the dog was used as a pack dog carrying up to 15 kg. Without working trial.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: The breed has an 1100 to 2000 year history of being interdependent with the Thule culture of Inuit (Eskimo people) who, following the Dorset culture, occupied the coastal and archipelago area of what is now Arctic Canada. Although within the spitz family of dogs, the Canadian Eskimo Dog’s origin prior to this is lost in the Inuit prehistory which includes the migration of the Mongolian race from the Asian continent to North America. The existing strain of Canadian Eskimo Dog originated from stock primarily bred by the Eskimo Dog Research Foundation in the Northwest Territories. The foundation’s work over a six-year period was primarily funded by the Governments of Canada and the Northwest Territories and involved the purchase of specimens from the remnant population of dogs kept by the Inuit of the Boothia Peninsula, Melville Peninsula and parts of Baffin Island. The Canadian Eskimo Dog, as a primitive dog, is primarily a carnivorous breed, whose natural diet consisted of seal, walrus, fish, or caribou.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: The Canadian Eskimo Dog is a powerfully built, moderately sized dog with a thick neck and chest and medium length legs. Typical of the spitz family of dogs he has a wedge-shaped head held high with thick erect ears. The eyes are obliquely set giving a serious appearance. The dog has a bushy tail carried up or curled over the back. Of almost equal height at the hips as at the withers, medium to large boned and well muscled the dog displays a majestic and powerful physique giving the impression that he is not built for speed but rather for hard work. Above all the body should be muscled and not fat. Females will have a smaller and less muscled body than the males. During the winter the body is thickly clothed with an outer coat of straight or erect hair; below is dense underfur which enables the animal to easily withstand the rigours of high latitudes. A mane-like growth of longer hair over the neck and shoulder will appear on male specimens. The whole conformation of the Canadian Eskimo Dog should be one of strength, power and endurance balanced with agility, alertness and boldness. The female of the breed will usually have a shorter coat than the male and will always be significantly smaller than the male. As young bitches, they will be finer boned giving among other things a narrower head which tends to produce a friendlier looking face than with males. Both males and females of the breed are known to have a rapid growth rate reaching working size around seven months. However, the maturing process extends to at least three years of age giving them a very majestic appearance. Puppies have often been described as miniature adults, with erect ears and a curly tail at the young ages between three to five weeks. There may be occasional periods during adolescent growth stages when the ears may not be fully erect but it is important to note that the ears of the Canadian Eskimo Dog do not have the same gradual growth of becoming erect around four months of age as is seen in some other breeds.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: Width of the forehead between the ears on the males will be from 5-6 inches (13-15 cm). On the females the distance will be from 4-1/2 -5-1/2 inches (11-14 cm).

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT: The temperament of the Canadian Eskimo Dog should reflect the tough, hard-working breed that he is. He is not to be viewed as a domestic pet but rather as a primitive dog originally domesticated by Inuit for specific tasks in a harsh arctic environment. In general disposition, the mature Canadian Eskimo Dog is gentle and affectionate with the average individual, enjoying attention. Even with total strangers the dogs are rarely standoffish. Usually they will exhibit a rather quiet friendliness and harmless curiosity or become completely distant. The dog is very pack oriented and if raised as a group, dominant and subordinate roles will be acted out under the leadership of a totally dominant or boss dog. Behaviour within a group or pack is usually well structured and controlled but it is not uncommon to see battle scars or torn ears on dogs originating from kennel areas where the dogs are raised in groups or packs. Compared to modern domestic breeds, the Canadian Eskimo Dog has an almost over response to any stimulus whether it be food, work, defense or play. For this reason, the dog should be a companion for adults and is not to be considered a child’s pet.

HEAD

CRANIAL REGION: Skull: Massive but well-proportioned being broad and wedge-shaped. Although often described as wolf-like in appearance the head of the Canadian Eskimo Dog has a more elevated forehead. Immature females will have a much narrower skull than the male.

FACIAL REGION: Nose: Pigmentation of the nose will vary from black to light brown (especially on lighter coloured dogs with red, buff, or cinnamon on the body). Butterfly noses have, on occasion appeared with the light brown nose.

Muzzle: Tapered and of medium length.

Lips: Black or brown with pink.

Jaws/Teeth: The jaws are heavy and powerful possessing large teeth with well-developed canine teeth. The incisors meet in a scissor bite.

Eyes: Generally dark-coloured but hazel or yellow-coloured eyes will appear in the breed. They are small, wide spaced and placed obliquely in the head which tends to impart much more of a wild and deceitful appearance than the dog deserves.

Ears: Short, thick and have slightly rounded ends. They are carried erect, turned forwards and are covered with dense short hair.

NECK: Short, straight, thick, and very muscular.

BODY: Of almost equal height at the hips as at the withers.

Back: The spinal column when felt through the furred body is well pronounced.

Loin: Well-developed.

Chest: Deep, wide and well-muscled.

Underline and belly: There is very little curve to the flank.

TAIL: Large and bushy and generally carried up or curled over the back. Mature bitches may on occasion carry their tails down.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS: Shoulder: Broad, obliquely set with moderate muscling.

Forearm: Straight but may give the appearance of being bowed, because of the well-developed triceps muscle above and behind the elbow and the pronounced muscle on the forearm itself.

Forefeet: Large, nearly round, well arched with thick pads being well furred between; however, under extremely cold winter conditions, this fur will grow to be very long so as to cover the bottom of the pads.

HINDQUARTERS: General appearance: The hips may appear as pronounced and bony as the spine, and are about the same height as the withers.

Thigh: The legs will be very muscular with the width of the thigh being carried well down towards the hock.

Stifle (Knee): Well bent.

Hind feet: Similar in design to the front but slightly longer. From the rear, the legs will appear straight with the hocks turning neither in nor out.

GAIT / MOVEMENT: The working gait of this dog is a powerful and brisk trot with the rear legs moving in line with the front legs in the force motion but showing some abduction during the forward movement of the stride. This may be especially pronounced in mature male dogs with many miles in harness. This gait may appear awkward to the untrained eye but is a result of a wide stance caused by well-developed thighs. This particular gait is a well-balanced efficient stride for heavy pulling day after day. The movement of the dog should in no way appear as a choppy or paddling motion. The females are much faster and freer in movement than the heavier males and are capable of breaking stride from the natural trot and running or galloping for much longer distances than the males.

SKIN: Should feel thick and tough.

COAT

Hair: Subject to an annual moult usually in August or September, the coat is thick and dense with guard hairs being hard and stiff. This outer coat will vary from 3-6 inches (7-15 cm) in length. In males it will occur in a mane-like growth over the shoulder and neck making the male appear much larger in size and taller at the withers than he actually is. The undercoat is very dense to give excellent protection during the most extreme winter conditions. During the moult this underfur will come loose in clumps over a period of a few days. Females will usually have a shorter coat overall partially because of the additional moult that will occur following the birth of pups.

Colour: No one colour or colour pattern should dominate the breed with the colour and colour patterns of the Canadian Eskimo Dog ranging from:

(a) An all white body with pigmentation around the eyes, nose and lips (e.g. not albino).

(b) White body with only the smallest amount of red, buff

(including cinnamon shades), grey or black around the ears or eyes.

(c) White bodies with either red, buff, cinnamon, grey, or black head marks around ears and eyes or the entire head and the occasional small patch of the same colour on the body usually around the hip or flank.

(d) Red and white, or buff and white, or cinnamon and white or black and white with about 50/50 distribution of the two colours, on various parts of the body.

(e) Red body or buff body or cinnamon body with white on chest and/or legs and underside of body.

(f) Sable or black body or dark grey body with white on chest and/or legs and underside of body occasionally extending around part of the neck in a collar-like fashion.

(g) Silver grey or greyish white body.

(h) Buff to brown undercoat with black guard hairs. Very common to dogs with solid colour to most of the head is a mask-like shading of white around the eyes and/or muzzle with or without white spots over the eyes. On very rare occasions the spots over the eyes as well as cheek-marks will be buff coloured thus adding a third colour to a normally two-coloured animal.

SIZE AND WEIGHT:

Height at the withers: Males: 58-70 cm Females: 50-60 cm Weight: Males: 30-40 kg Females: 18-30 kg

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog (and its ability to perform its traditional work).

SEVERE FAULTS:

  • Head: Square muzzle or loose lips, round or bulging eyes.
  • Neck: Long and thin.
  • Body: Narrow chest, over-all lack of muscle, excess fat, sloping back, coarseness or lack of finer bones in   bitches.
  • Legs: thin, fine boned or cow hocked.
  • Feet: Flat or open.
  • Coat: Short, off prime.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Blue eyes.
  • Floppy ears, the exception being battle torn ears.
  • Clipping or altering the coat by scissoring.
  • No evidence at all of a curled or upright tail in male dogs (recognizing that a tail may occasionally be kept down as a sign of subordination or stress).
  • Excessive undershot or overshot jaw.

N.B.:

  • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation, should be used for breeding.

Rottweiler

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION:

Companion, service and working dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

The Rottweiler is considered to be one of the oldest dog breeds. Its origin goes back to Roman times. These dogs were kept as herder or driving dogs. They marched over the Alps with the Roman legions, protecting the humans and driving their cattle. In the region of Rottweil, these dogs met and mixed with the native dogs in a natural crossing. The main task of the Rottweiler now became the driving and guarding of herds of cattle and the defence of their masters and their property. This breed acquired its name from the old Free City of Rottweil and was known as the ‘Rottweil butcher’s dog’. The butchers bred this type of dog purely for performance and usefulness. In due course, a first rate watch and driving dog evolved which could also be used as a draught dog. When at the beginning of the twentieth century, various breeds were needed for police service, the Rottweiler was amongst those tested. It soon became evident that the breed was highly suitable for the tasks set by police service and, therefore, they were officially recognised as police dogs in 1910. Rottweiler breeders aim at a dog of abundant strength, black coated with clearly defined rich tan markings, whose powerful appearance does not lack nobility and which is exceptionally well suited to being a companion, service, rescue and working dog.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

The Rottweiler is a medium to large size, stalwart dog, neither heavy nor light and neither leggy nor weedy. His correctly proportioned, compact and powerful build leads to the conclusion of great strength, agility and endurance.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

The length of the body, measured from the point of the sternum (breast bone) to the ischiatic tuberosity, should not exceed the height at the withers by, at most, 15%.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

Good natured, placid in basic disposition, very devoted, obedient, biddable and eager to work. His appearance is natural and rustic, his behaviour self-assured, steady and fearless. He reacts to his surroundings with great alertness and at the same time even-tempered.

HEAD:
CRANIAL REGION
Skull - Of medium length, relatively broad between the ears. Forehead line moderately arched as seen from the side. Occipital bone well developed without being conspicuous.
Stop - Stop relatively strong. Frontal groove not too deep.

FACIAL REGION
Nose - Well developed, more broad than round with relatively large nostrils, always black.
Muzzle - The foreface should appear neither elongated nor shortened in relation to the cranial region. The ration between the length of the muzzle and the length of the skull is about 1 to 1,5. Straight nasal bridge, broad at base, moderately tapered.
Lips - Black, close fitting, corner of the mouth not visible, gum as dark as possible.
Jaw/Teeth - Upper and lower jaw strong and broad. Strong, complete dentition (42 teeth) with scissor bite, the upper incisors closely overlapping the lower incisors.
Cheeks - Zygomatic arches pronounced.
Eyes - Of medium size, almond-shaped, dark brown in colour. Eyelids close fitting.
Ears - Medium sized, pendant, triangular, wide apart, set on high. With ears laid forward close to the head, the skull appears to be broadened.

NECK

Strong of fair length, well muscled, slightly arched, clean, free from throatiness, without excessive dewlap.

BODY
Back - Straight, strong, firm.
Loins - Short, strong and deep.
Croup - Broad, of medium length, slightly rounded. Neither flat nor falling away.
Chest - Roomy, broad and deep (approximately 50% of the shoulder height) with well developed forechest and well sprung ribs.
Belly - Flanks not tucked up.

TAIL:
In natural condition, strong, level in extension of the upper line; while paying attention, when excited or while moving it can be carried upward in a light curve: at ease may be hanging. While positioned along the leg, the tail reaches approximately to the hocks or is a bit longer.

[*refer note below]

LIMBS:

FOREQUARTERS: Seen from the front, the front legs are straight and not placed too closely to each other. The forearm, seen from the side, stands straight and vertical. The slope of the shoulder blade is about 45 degrees to the horizontal.
Shoulders - Well laid back.
Upperarm - Close fitting to the body.
Forearm - Strongly developed and muscular.
Pasterns - Slightly springy, strong, not steep.
Feet - Round, tight and well arched; pads hard; nails short, black and strong.

HINDQUARTERS:Seen from behind, legs straight and not too close together. When standing free, obtuse angles are formed between the dog’s upper thigh and the hip bone, the upper thigh and the lower thigh and metatarsal.
Upper thigh - Moderately long, broad and strongly muscled.
Lower thigh - Long, strongly and broadly muscled, sinewy.
Hocks – Sturdy, well angulated hocks; not steep.
Hind Feet - Slightly longer than the front feet. Toes strong, arched, as tight as front feet.

GAIT:

The Rottweiler is a trotting dog. In movement the back remains firm and relatively stable. Movement harmonious, steady, full of energy and unrestricted, with good stride.

SKIN:

Skin on the head: overall tight fitting. When the dog is alert, the forehead may be slightly wrinkled.

COAT:
Hair - The coat consists of a top coat and an undercoat. The top coat is of medium length, coarse, dense and flat. The undercoat must not show through the top coat. The hair is a little longer on the hindlegs.

COLOUR :

Black with clearly defined markings of a rich tan on the cheeks, muzzle, throat, chest and legs, as well as over both eyes and under the base of the tail. 

SIZE AND WEIGHT
Height at withers: Males: 61-68 cm. 
61-62cm is small 63-64cm medium height
65-66cm is large – correct height   67-68cm very large.
Weight: 50kg.

Height at withers: Bitches: 56-63cm
56-57cm is small                              58-59cm medium height
60-61cm is large - correct height 62-63cm very large.
Weight Approximately 42kg.

FAULTS:

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
General Appearance: Light, weedy, leggy appearance. Light in bone and muscle.
Head: Hound-type head. Narrow, light, too short, long, coarse or excessively molossoid head. Flat forehead. (Lack of stop, too little stop or too strong stop).
Foreface : Long, pointed or too short muzzle (any muzzle shorter than 40 percent of the length of the head is too short); split nose; Roman nose (convex nasal bridge) or dish-faced (concave nasal bridge); aquiline nose; pale or spotted nose (butterfly nose).
Lips: Pendulous, pink or patchy; corner of lips visible.
Jaws: Narrow lower jaw.
Bite – Pincer bite. Molars of the underjaw not standing in one line.
Cheeks: Strongly protruding.
Eyes – Light, deep set. Also too full and round eyes; loose eyelids.
Ears – Set on too low or too high, heavy, long, slack or turned backwards. Also flying ears or ears not carried symmetrically.
Neck – Too long, thin, lacking muscle. Showing dewlap or throaty.
Body: Too long, too short or too narrow.
Back: Too long, weak; sway back or roach back.
Croup: Too sloping, too short, too flat or too long.
Chest: Flat ribbed or barrel shaped. Too narrow behind.
Tail: Set on too high or too low.
Forequarters: Narrow or crooked or not parallel standing front legs. Steep shoulder placement. Loose or out at elbow. Too long, too short or too straight in upper arm. Weak or steep pastern. Splayed feet. Too flat or too arched toes. Deformed toes. Light coloured nails.
Hindquarters: Flat thighs, hocks too close, cow hocks or barrel hocks. Joints with too little or too much angulation. Dewclaws.
Skin: Wrinkles on head.
Coat: Soft, too short or too long. Wavy coat, lack of undercoat.
Colour: markings of incorrect colour, not clearly defined. Markings which are too spread out.

SEVERE FAULTS:

General appearance: Too Molossoid type and heavy general appearance.

Skin: Skin at the head strongly wrinkled, strong wrinkles in the area of the forehead, the muzzle and the cheeks, strong dewlap.

Gait: Sluggish action while trotting.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

Aggressive or overly she dogs.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

Behaviour – Anxious, shy, cowardly, gun-shy, vicious, excessively suspicious, nervous animals.
General appearance: Distinct reversal of sexual type i.e. feminine dogs or masculine bitches.
Teeth – Overshot or undershot bite, wry mouth; lack of one incisive tooth, one canine, one premolar or one molar.
Eyes: Entropion, ectropion, yellow eyes, different coloured eyes.
Tail – Kink tail, ring tail, with strong lateral deviation, natural bobtail.
Hair – Definitely long or wavy coat.
Colour – Dogs which do not show the typical Rottweiler colouring of black with tan markings. White markings.

NOTE
Males must have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation, should be used for breeding.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked and formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either. (Fedco 12/2017 Amended 02/2018)                                                                                    

German Shepherd Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

Utilization: Versatile working, herding and service dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW:

According to the official documentation of the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (SV) e.V. (Society for the German Shepherd Dog, “SV” for short) – legal domicile in Augsburg, Germany, member of the Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen (VDH, German Kennel Club) – the "SV" as the founding club of the breed is responsible for the breed standard of the German Shepherd Dog. Established in the first General Meeting at Frankfurt/Main on 20 September 1899 according to suggestions by A. Meyer and Max von Stephanitz and in addition to the amendments of the 6th General Meeting on 28 July 1901, the 23rd General Meeting at Cologne/Rhineland on 17 September 1909, the Executive Board & Advisory Board Meeting at Wiesbaden on 5 September 1930 and the Breeding Committee & Executive Board Meeting on 25 March 1961, revisions were resolved within the framework of the World Union of German Shepherd Dog Clubs (WUSV) Meeting on 30 August 1976. 
Revisions and catalogued measures were resolved with the Enabling Resolution through the Executive Board and Advisory Board from 23/24 March 1991, amended through the Federal Conventions from 25 May 1997 and 31 May/1 June 2008. 
The German Shepherd Dog, whose methodical breeding was started in 1899 after the foundation of the society, had been bred from the central German and southern German breeds of the herding dogs existing at that time with the ultimate objective of creating a working dog inclined to high achievements. In order to achieve this objective, the breed standard of the German Shepherd Dog was determined, which relates to the physical constitution as well as the traits and characteristics.

GENERAL APPEARANCE
The German Shepherd Dog is medium-size, slightly elongated, powerful and well-muscled, with dry bone and firm overall structure.

IMPORTANT DIMENSIONAL RATIOS
The height at the withers amounts to 60 cm to 65 cm for male dogs and 55 cm to 60 cm for female dogs. The trunk length exceeds the dimension at the height at the withers by about 10 – 17 %.

CHARACTER
The German Shepherd Dog must be well-balanced (with strong nerves) in terms of character, self-assured, absolutely natural and (except for a stimulated situation) good-natured as well as attentive and willing to please. He must possess instinctive behaviour, resilience and self-assurance in order to be suitable as a companion, guard, protection, service and herding dog.

HEAD
The head is wedge-shaped, and in proportion to the body size (length about 40 % at the height at the withers), without being plump or too elongated, dry in the overall appearance and moderately broad between the ears.
Seen from the front and side, the forehead is only slightly arched and without any or with only a slightly indicated middle furrow.
The ratio from the cranial region to the facial region is 50 % to 50 %. The width of the cranial region more or less corresponds to the length of the cranial region. The cranial region (seen from above) tapers evenly towards the nasal bridge with gradually sloping, not sharply depicted stop in the wedge-shaped facial region (foreface) of the head. Upper and lower jaws are powerfully developed.

The nasal dorsum is straight, any dip or bulge is undesirable. The lips are taut, close well and are of dark colouring.

The nose must be black.

The teeth must be strong, healthy and complete (42 teeth according to the dental formula). The German Shepherd Dog has a scissor bite, i.e. the incisors must interlock like scissors, whereby the incisors of the upper jaw overlap those of the lower jaw. Occlusal overlay, overbite and retrusive occlusion as well as larger spaces between the teeth (gaps) are faulty. The straight dental ridge of the incisors is also faulty. The jaw bones must be strongly developed so that the teeth can be deeply embedded in the dental ridge.

The eyes are of medium size, almond-shaped, slightly slanted and not protruding. The colour of the eyes should be as dark as possible. Light, piercing eyes are undesirable since they impair the dog’s impression.

EARS
The German Shepherd Dog has erect ears of medium size, which are carried upright and aligned (not drawn-in laterally); they are pointed and with the auricle facing forward. 
Tipped ears and drooping ears are faulty. Ears carried rearward when moving or in relaxed position are not faulty.

NECK
The neck should be strong, well-muscled and without loose neck skin (dewlap). The angulation towards the trunk (horizontal) amounts to approx. 45 %.

BODY
The upper line runs from the base of the neck via the high, long withers and via the straight back towards the slightly sloping croup, without visible interruption. The back is moderately long, firm, strong and well-muscled. The loin is broad, short, strongly developed and well-muscled. The croup should be long and slightly sloping (approx. 23° to the horizontal) and the upper line should merge into the base of the tail without interruption.

The chest should be moderately broad, the lower chest as long and pronounced as possible. The depth of the chest should amount to approx. 45 % to 48 % of the height at the withers.

The ribs should feature a moderate curvature; a barrel-shaped chest is just as faulty as flat ribs.

The tail extends at least to the hock, but not beyond the middle of the hind pastern. It has slightly longer hair on the underside and is carried hanging downward in a gentle curve, whereby in a state of excitement and in motion it is raised and carried higher, but not beyond the horizontal. Operative corrections are forbidden.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS

The forelimbs are straight when seen from all sides, and absolutely parallel when seen from the front. 

Shoulder blade and upper arm are of equal length, and firmly attached to the trunk by means of powerful musculature. The angulation from shoulder blade and upper arm is ideally 90°, but generally up to 110°.

The elbows may not be turned out either while standing or moving, and also not pushed in. The forearms are straight when seen from all sides, and absolutely parallel to each other, dry and firmly muscled. The pastern has a length of approx. 1/3 of the forearm, and has an angle of approx. 20° to 22° to the forearm. A slanted pastern (more than 22°) as well as a steep pastern (less than 20°) impairs the suitability for work, particularly the stamina.

The paws are rounded, well-closed and arched; the soles are hard, but not brittle. The nails are strong and of dark colour.

HINDQUARTERS

The position of hind legs is slightly backwards, whereby the hind limbs are parallel to each other when seen from the rear. Upper leg and lower leg are of approximately the same length and form an angle of approx. 120°; the legs are strong and well-muscled. 
The hocks are strongly developed and firm; the hind pastern stands vertically under the hock. 
The paws are closed, slightly arched; the pads are hard and of dark colour; the nails are strong, arched and also of dark colour.

GAIT
The German Shepherd Dog is a trotter. The limbs must be coordinated in length and angulations so that the dog can shift the hindquarters towards the trunk without any essential change of the top line and can reach just as far with the forelimbs. Any tendency towards over-angulation of the hindquarters reduces the stability and the stamina, and thereby the working ability.                   Correct body proportions and angulations results in a gait that is far-reaching and flat over the ground which conveys the impression of effortless forward movements. The head pushed forward and the slightly raised tail result in a consistent, smooth trot showing a gently curved, uninterrupted upper line from the ear tips over the neck and back to the end of the tail.

SKIN
The skin is (loosely) fitting, but without forming any folds.

COAT

Hair texture

Hair: The German Shepherd Dog is bred in the hair varieties double coat and long and harsh outer coat – both with undercoat.

Double coat: The guard hair should be as dense as possible, particularly harsh and close fitting: short on the head, including the inside of the ears, short on the front side of the legs, paws and toes, some-what longer and more strongly covered in hair on the neck. On the back side of the legs the hair extends to the carpal joint or the hock; it forms moderate ‘trousers’ on the back side of the haunches.

Long and harsh outer coat: The guard hair should be long, soft and not close fitting, with tufts on the ears and legs, bushy trousers and bushy tail with downward formation of tuft. Short on the head, including the inside of the ears, on the front side of the legs, on the paws and toes, somewhat longer and more strongly covered in hair on the neck, almost forming a mane. On the back side of the legs the hair extends to the carpal joint or the hock and forms clear trousers on the back side of the haunches.

COLOURS
Colours are black with reddish-brown, brown and yellow to light grey markings; single-coloured black, grey with darker shading, black saddle and mask. Unobtrusive, small white marks on chest as well as very light colour on insides are permissible, but not desirable. The tip of the nose must be black in all colours. Dogs with lack of mask, light to piercing eye colour, as well as with light to whitish markings on the chest and the insides, pale nails and red tip of tail are considered to be lacking in pigmentation. The undercoat shows a light greyish tone.  The colour white is not allowed.

SIZE/WEIGHT
Male dogs:
Height at the withers: 60cm to 65cm
Weight: 30kg to 40kg

Female dogs:
Height at the withers: 55cm to 60cm
Weight: 22kg to 32kg

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

SERIOUS FAULTS
Deviations from the above-described breed characteristics which impair the working capability.
Faulty ears: ears set too low laterally, tipped ears, inward constricted ears, ears not firm
Considerable pigment deficiencies.
Severely impaired overall stability.

DENTAL FAULTS:
All deviations from scissor bite and dental formula insofar as it does not involve eliminating faults (see the following)

ELIMINATING FAULTS
a) Dogs with weak character and weak nerves which bite                                                                                                  
b) Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

c) Dogs with proven “severe hip dysplasia” 
d) Monorchid or cryptorchid dogs as well as dogs with clearly dissimilar or atrophied testicles
e) Dogs with disfiguring ears or tail faults
f) Dogs with malformations
g) Dogs with dental faults, with lack of: 
1 premolar 3 and another tooth, or
1 canine tooth, or
1 premolar 4, or
1 molar 1 or molar 2, or
a total of 3 teeth or more
h) Dogs with jaw deficiencies:
Overshot by 2 mm and more, undershot, level bite in the entire incisor region

i) Dogs with oversize or undersize by more than 1 cm 
j) Albinism 
k) White hair colour (also with dark eyes and nails)
l) Long Straight Topcoat without undercoat
m) Long-haired (long, soft guard hair without undercoat, mostly parted in the middle of the back, tufts on the ears and legs and on the tail)

NB 

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

Qualification for Advanced Registration Certificate (ARC) (effective 1.02.2017)
Before submitting any application the following requirements must have been fulfilled:
1. Positively identified by microchip
2. Be DNA profiled (DNA ID number required) 
3. Be over twenty four (24) months of age
4. Be a KUSA Champion – with a minimum of ‘VG” (Very Good) awarded at a KUSA/FCI Graded Show
5. Registered name of the dog contains an Affix (Kennel Name)
6. Have IPO 1 qualification
7. Breed Assessment as per Schedule 5F (9.1.2) 
8. Qualified at an Endurance Test
9. Hip X-rayed and scored under the KUSA/SAVA HD scheme (or recognised equivalent scheme) at or after 12 months of age for Hip Dysplasia and scored no worse than HD: B2
10. Elbows X-rayed and scored under the KUSA/SAVA ED scheme (or recognised equivalent scheme) at or after 12 months of age for Elbow Dysplasia and scored no worse than ED: 2

Fila Brasileiro

Posted in Working Group

Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION:

Watch Dog.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

Typically a molossoid breed. Powerful bones, rectangular and compact structure, but harmonious and well proportioned. Displays, together with a massive body, a great amount of concentrated agility which is easily perceived. The sexual dimorphism must be very well defined and obvious (feminine females, masculine males).

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:
The muzzle is slightly shorter than the skull.
The length of the body, measured from the point of the sternum to the point of buttock, – exceeds of the height at the withers with 15%.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

Courage, determination and outstanding braveness are part of its characteristics. With its owners and family it is docile, obedient and extremely tolerant with children. Its loyalty is proverbial, insistently seeking the company of its master. 
One of its characteristics is its aloofness towards strangers. It displays a calm disposition, distinctive self-assurance and self-confidence, remaining unperturbed by strange noises or circumstances. An unsurpassed guardian of properties, it also instinctively indulges in big game hunting and cattle herding. While one of its characteristics is a natural aloofness towards strangers especially in its own territory, it must be susceptible to controlled handling, especially in the show ring.

In repose it is calm; noble and full of self-assurance. Never displaying a bored or absent expression. When alert, its expression should reflect determination conveyed by a firm, penetrating look.

HEAD:

The head of the Fila is big, heavy and massive, always proportionate to the whole body. From a top view it resembles a trapezoid figure into which a pear shape is inserted.

CRANIAL REGION:
Skull: The profile of the skull shows a smooth curve from the stop to the occiput, which is well defined and protuberant especially in puppies. From a front view it is large, broad with the upper line slightly curved. Lateral lines come down almost vertically, in a slight continuous curve narrowing towards the muzzle. 
Stop: From a front view it is practically nonexistent. The median groove is slight and runs up smoothly to approximately the centre of the skull. Seen from the side, the stop is only slightly pronounced and virtually only formed by the well-developed eyebrows.

FACIAL REGION:
Nose:  Well developed, broad nostrils not occupying entirely the width of the upper jaw. Colour: black.
Muzzle:  Strong, broad and deep, always in harmony with the skull. Fairly deep at the root but not deeper than long. Seen from above, it is full under the eyes, slightly narrowing towards the middle of the muzzle and again broadening slightly to the front line. Seen from the side, the muzzle is straight or has a Roman line, but never turned up. The front line of the muzzle is almost perpendicular to the bridge of the nose with a slight depression right under the nose.
Lips:  The upper lip is thick and pendulous and overlaps the lower lip in a perfect curve; thus the lower line of the muzzle is almost parallel to the upper line. The lower lip is tight and firm to the fangs and from there on it is loose with dented borders ending at the corners which are always apparent. The muzzle has a good depth at the root but without surpassing the length. Edges of the lips form a deep inverted “U”.
Teeth/jaws: The teeth are significantly wider than long. Strong and white. Upper incisors are broad at their root and taper to the edge. Canines are powerful, well set and well apart. The ideal bite is the scissor bite.
Eyes:  From medium to large size, almond shaped, spaced well apart, medium to deep set. Permissible colours - from dark brown to yellow, always in accordance to the colour of the coat. However a darker colour is preferred. Due to the loose skin many individuals present drooping lower eyelids which are not considered a fault as such; a detail accentuates the melancholic expression which is typical of the breed. 
Ears: Pendant, large, thick, V-shaped. Broad at the base and tapering to the ends. Rounded tips. Attached at the back of the skull, in line with the eyes when in repose. When roused, the ears are above the original position. The root is oblique, with the front edge higher than the back edge. Falling over the cheeks or folded back showing the inside (rose ear).

NECK:

Extraordinarily strong and muscled giving the impression of a short neck. Slightly curved at the upper side and well detached from the skull. Dewlaps at the throat.

BODY:

Strong, broad and deep, covered by thick and loose skin. 
The thorax is longer than the abdomen. 
Topline:  Withers, in sloping line, are set well apart from each other due to the distance between the shoulder blades. Withers are set lower than the croup. After the withers, the upper line changes direction, ascending smoothly to the croup. Back line shows no tendency to sway or roach back.
Loin/Flanks:  Shorter and not so deep as the thorax, showing distinctly the separation of the two component parts. In females the lower part of the flank is more developed. Seen from above, the loin is narrower than the thorax and croup but should not form a waistline.
Croup:  Broad, long, sloping at angle of approximately 30 degrees to the horizontal and ending in a smooth curve. The croup is set a little higher than the withers. From a back view, the croup is ample almost as wide as the chest and can be even broader for females.
Chest:  Well sprung ribs though not interfering with the position of shoulder. Deep and broad chest reaching to the level of the elbows. Well pronounced brisket.
Lower line:  A long chest and parallel to the ground in all its extension. Slightly tucked up but never whippety.

TAIL:

Very wide at the root, medium set, tapering rapidly to reach the hocks. When the dog is alert, the tail is raised high and the curve at the extremity is more accentuated. Should not be carried curled over the back nor touch it.

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS:

General Appearance: The length of the leg, from the ground to the elbow, should be half of the height from the ground to the withers.
Shoulder:  The shoulder structure should be composed by two bones of equal length (scapula and humerus); the former at 45 degrees to the horizontal and the latter 90 degrees to the scapula.

The scapula-humeral articulation forms the point of shoulder which is situated at the same level but slightly behind the point of sternum. In the ideal position, the point of shoulder should be half way from elbow to withers. An imaginary perpendicular line coming down from the withers should cut the elbow and reach the foot.
Forearm:  The limbs must be parallel. Strong and straight bones.
Carpal joint (wrist):  Strong and apparent.
Metacarpus (pastern): Short, slightly sloping.
Feet: Strong and well arched toes not too close together. The dog stands on thick toes and pads which are long, broad and deep. In the correct position, the feet should point forward. Strong, dark nails; white nails permissible when the corresponding toes are white. 

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Less heavy boned than forelegs but never appearing thin compared to the overall build. Hindlegs are parallel.
Upper thigh: Broad with curved outline shaped by strong muscles coming from the ilium and ischium which design the curve of the buttocks and for this reason the ischium must have a good length.
Tarsus (hock):  Strong.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern):  Slightly sloping, longer than the metacarpus. Moderately angled stifle and hock.
Feet:  A little more oval than the forefeet but the otherwise identical. Should not present dewclaws.

GAIT/MOVEMENT:

 Long and elastic feline-like strides whose principal characteristic is the pace; a two beat lateral gait in which the legs of each side move back and forth exactly as a pair (“camel’s pace”) causing a rolling or rocking motion of the thorax and hips accentuated by the tail when carried erect. When walking, it carries the head lower than the back line. The trot is smooth, free and effortless with a long, powerful and reaching stride. The gallop is powerful, attaining unsuspected speed for such a large and heavy dog. Due to its articulations, typical of molossoids, the movements of the Fila not only give the impression but actually allow him to make sudden and rapid changes of direction.

SKIN:

One of the most important breed characteristics is the thick, loose skin over the whole body, chiefly at the neck forming pronounced dewlaps and many times it can extend to the brisket and abdomen. Some individuals present a fold at the sides of the head, also at the withers running down to the shoulders. If the dog is in repose, the head should be free from wrinkles. When alert, the dog raises its ears and the contraction of the skin on the skull forms small longitudinal wrinkles between the ears.

COAT
HAIR: Short, smooth, dense and close to the body.

COLOUR:

Brindle, fawn and black. A black mask may or may not be present. In all permitted colours white marks are allowed on the feet, chest and tip of tail. White markings on other parts of the coat are considered a fault.
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Height at Withers:
Males: from 65 cm (25.6 ins) to 75 cm (29.5 ins) at the shoulder. Females: from 60 cm (23.6 ins) to 70 cm (27.5 ins) at the shoulder.
Weight:
Males: minimum: 50 kgs (100 pounds) Females: minimum: 40 kgs (80 pounds).

FAULTS:

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and it effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

  • Level bite
  • Short muzzle.
  • Small ears.
  • Highly set ears.
  • Excessively light coloured eyes.
  • Wrinkles when the dog is in repose.
  • Undershot bite.
  • Double chin (folds in front of dewlap).
  • Sway back.
  • Very narrow croup.
  • Curled tail carried over the back.
  • Chest insufficiently deep.
  • Pronounced deviation of pastern or rear pastern.
  • Over angulated hindquarters (sickle hocks).
  • Short steps (poor reach).

SERIOUS FAULTS:

  • Apathy and timidity.
  • Square build.
  • Small head.
  • Pronounced stop seen from the front.
  • Short upper lip.
  • Protruding eyes. Round eyes. Lack of pigmentation on eyelids.
  • Lack of 2 teeth except PM1 (first premolars).
  • Lack of dewlaps.
  • Roach back or level back.
  • Excessive tuckup.
  • Light bones. Lack of substance.
  • Cow hocks.
  • Lack of angulation at the hindquarters (straight hocks).
  • White markings exceeding 1/4th (one fourth) of the body.
  • Height exceeding the maximum.

DISQUALIFING FAULTS:

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Flesh-coloured nose.
  • Overshot bite.
  • Undershot bite with teeth visible when the mouth is closed.
  • Lack of 1 canine or 1 molar except the 3rd one.
  • Wall eyes.
  • Cropped ears or docked tail.
  • Croup lower than the withers.
  • Dog not walking at camel’s pace.
  • Skin not loose and supple.
  • All dogs which are white, mouse-grey, dappled, black and tan, blue.
  • Males under 65 cm and females under 60 cm of height at the shoulder.
  • Use of artificial methods to produce certain effects, albinism, lack of type.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.                   

Cane Corso Italiano

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION:

Utility dog, polyvalent.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

Its direct ancestor is the old Roman Molossian. Formerly scattered all over Italy, in the recent past, the breed was only prevalent in the Province Apulia and in the adjacent regions of Southern Italy. His name derives from the Latin «cohors», which means «protector, guardian of the farmyard».

GENERAL APPEARANCE: Medium to large sized. Robust and sturdy dog, nevertheless with some elegance. Lean and, powerful muscles.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

The dog is rectangular in outline and is slightly longer than tall. (The length of the dog is 11% greater than the height of the dog). The length of the head reaches 36 % of the height at the withers.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT:

Guardian of property, family and livestock; extremely agile and responsive. In the past, it has been used for herding cattle and hunting big game.

HEAD:

Large and typically molossoid. The upper longitudinal axes of the skull and the muzzle are slightly convergent, without evident wrinkles.

CRANIAL REGION:
Skull: Broad at the zygomatic arches the width is equal to the length. Convex in front, it becomes flat behind the forehead as far as the occiput. The medio-frontal furrow is visible, beginning at the stop and ending at about the middle of the skull.
Stop: Well defined, with prominent frontal sinuses.

FACIAL REGION
Nose: Black. A grey mask may have a nose colour of the same nuance. Large nose with ample open nostrils. Nose placed on the same line as the nasal bridge.
Muzzle: Strong, square, noticeably shorter than the skull, ratio muzzle: skull approximately 1 : 2. The front part of the muzzle is flat; the lateral surfaces are parallel; the muzzle is as broad as it is long. Seen from the side it is deep. The profile of the nasal bridge is straight.
Lips: The upper lips; seen from the front, form an inverted ”U” at their meeting point; seen from the side hangs moderately. They cover the lower jaw and determine the profile of the lower part of the muzzle.
Jaws/Teeth: Jaws are very large thick and curved. Slightly undershot but no more than 5 mm. Level bite tolerable but not sought after.
Cheeks: The masseter region is fully evident, but not bulging.
Eyes: Medium-sized, slightly protruding, but never exaggerated. Close to ovoid in shape, set well apart in an almost sub-frontal position. Eyelids close fitting. The colour of the iris is as dark as possible but according to the coat colour. Expression is keen and attentive.
Ears: Triangular, drooping, of medium size. With a wide set-on that is much above the zygomatic arches. Ears are un-cropped.

NECK:

Strong, muscular, as long as the head.

BODY:

The body is somewhat longer than the height at the withers. Sturdily built, but not square.
Withers: Pronounced, rising above the level of the croup.
Back: Straight, very muscular and firm.
Loins: Short and strong.
Croup: Long, and wide, slightly inclined.
Chest: Well developed all through reaches to the elbow.

TAIL:
Natural. Set on fairly high; very broad at the root. In action carried high, but never erect or curled.

[*refer note below]

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS:
Shoulders: Long, oblique, very muscular.
Upper arm: Strong.
Forearm: Straight, very strong.
Carpus (Wrist): Elastic.
Metacarpus (pastern): Elastic and just slightly sloping.
Forefeet: Cat feet.

HINDQUARTERS:
Thigh: Long, broad, back line of thigh convex.
Lower thigh: Strong, not fleshy.
Stifle (Knee): Solid, moderately angulated.
Hocks Joint: Moderately angulated.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Thick and dry.
Hindfeet: Slightly less compact than the forefeet.

GAIT / MOVEMENT:

Long stride, extended trot. The preferred gait is the trot.

SKIN:

Fairly thick, rather close fitting.

COAT
HAIR: Short, shiny, very dense with a slight undercoat of vitreous texture.

COLOUR:

Black, lead-grey, slate-grey, light grey, light fawn; dark fawn and stag red; dark wheat colour (stripes on different shades of fawn or grey); in fawn coloured and brindle dogs the black or grey mask on the muzzle should not go beyond the line of the eyes. A small white patch on the chest, on the tip of the toes and on the bridge of the nose is acceptable.

SIZE AND WEIGHT
Height at withers: Males: 64cm – 68cm.
                           Females: 60cm – 64cm.
With a tolerance of 2cm, more or less taller.
Weight: Males: 45 – 50kg.
             Females: 40 – 45kg.
Weight according to the size of dog.

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional work.

SEVERE FAULTS
• Axes of muzzle and skull parallel or very marked converging; lateral surfaces of the muzzle converging.
• Partial depigmentation of the nose.
• Scissor bite; undershot bite more than 5 mm.
• Ringed tail, tail in vertical position.
• Permanent amble when trotting.
• Over-or undersize.

Presence of dewclaws

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS
• Aggressive or overly shy.
• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
• Axes of muzzle and skull diverging.
• Total depigmentation of the nose.
• Bridge of nose concave or convex (Roman nose).
• Overshot mouth.
• Partial or complete palpebral depigmentation. Wall eye (blue flecked); strabism (squinted).
• Tailless, too short tail. 
• Semi-long, smooth or fringed hair.
• All colours not indicated in the standard; large white patches.

N.B.
• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked or formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either. (Fedco 12/2017 Amended DR/01/2018)

                                                    

Russian Black Terrier

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed. 

UTILIZATION Working dog, guarding dog, sporting and companion dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

The Russian Black Terrier was created in Russia during the late 1940s and the early 1950s by selective interbreeding of breeds like the Rottweiler, Giant Schnauzer, Airedale Terrier and Newfoundland Dog. The Giant Schnauzer is considered to be the main ancestor of the breed. The initial breeding was supervised by the military cynological school outside Moscow and the dogs were based in their kennels named “Red Star”/ The air of the creators of the breed was the development of a large, brave, strong and manageable working dog with pronounced guarding instinct: a dog which could be useful for many services and adapts well to various climate conditions. The breed was recognized by FCI in 1984.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

The Russian Black Terrier is a large dog with a slightly long body and very athletic build of a robust type and hardy constitution. The breed has qualities like massive bone and powerful muscles. It is symmetrical with a large head and compact body and a voluminous and deep chest. 
Difference between the sexes to be clearly defined.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS
The length of the body is slightly longer than the height at the withers, could be more pronounced in females. 
Depth of chest should not be less than half the height at the withers. Length of head should not be less than 40% of the dog’s height at the withers. The Muzzle is slightly shorter than the skull.

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT
A dignified and confident dog; well controlled in all situations. When circumstances require, he immediately assumes an active-defensive posture, however, quickly calms down at the disappearance of threat. This handsome breed is amiable and has great endurance; it is undemanding, smart and friendly. It adapts well to training and various climate conditions and is hard working and reliable.

HEAD
CRANIAL REGION:  Head should be in proportion to body, although large, massive and long.
Skull: Moderately broad with flat forehead. Topline of skull is parallel with topline of muzzle. The superciliary arches and occipital bone are moderately pronounced.
Stop:  Noticeable but not sharp.

FACIAL REGION
Nose:  Large and black
Muzzle:  Strong, broad and slightly shorter than skull. Muzzle is wide at base and narrowing slightly to the tip of the nose. Moustache and beard accentuated volume and give the muzzle a rectangular, blunt appearance.
Lips:  Thick, well pigmented and tight. Lip rims dark.
Jaws/Teeth: Large, white teeth that are tightly adjacent to each other, the lower incisors positioned in a line. Full dentition (42 teeth). Scissors bite.
Cheeks:  Dry cheek bones with rounded but not pronounced cheeks.
Eyes:  Medium size, oval shaped, set straight and wide apart, dark colour. Eye rims dry, tight and black.
Ears:  Hanging. Set high and symmetrical, medium sized, triangular shaped. Front edge close to cheek. Ear leather is dense, without folds.

NECK
Strong, dry and muscular. The Length of neck is approximately equal to the length of head and sit at an angle of 45-50 degree to the horizon. The nape is strong and well developed.

BODY
Solid, deep and voluminous, well balanced.
Topline:  Slightly sloping from the withers to the root of the tail.
Withers: High and well developed, more pronounced in males than in females.
Back:  Strong, Straight and muscular. The length of the actual back is equal to ½ the length measured from the withers to the base of the tail.
Loin:  Wide, short, muscular and slightly arched. The length is equal ½ the length of the actual back.
Croup: Broad, muscular, slightly sloping and of moderate length.
Chest: Deep, long and broad with slightly sprung ribs. The shape of the thorax (in cross section) is oval. The breast bone is long and the fore chest slightly extends the shoulder joint and is well muscled.
Underline and belly: On the same line as the elbow joint or slightly below. Belly moderately tucked up. Flanks only slightly developed.

TAIL

Thick at root and set high. In movement the tail is carried jauntily but the root of the tail does not incline over the back (squirrel tail).
Tail traditionally docked in country of origin. An undocked tails length or shape has no influence on the evaluation of the dog. Preferable shape of the undocked tail is sabre or sickle.

[*refer note below]

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS:
General Appearance: Forelegs when viewed from the front are straight and parallel. The distance from the elbow ulna to the ground is equal to 50-52% of the dogs’ height at the withers. 
Shoulder:  Long, broad and well-laid back. The angle between shoulder blade and upper arm is approximately 100 degrees.
Upper arm:  Muscular and no shorter than the shoulder-blades.
Elbow:  Close to body.
Forearm:  Straight, thick, round bone. Vertical when viewed from the front and side.
Metacarpus (Pastern): Short, massive and slightly sloping when viewed from the side.
Forefeet:  Large, compact and round in shape. Nails and pads are black.

HINDQUATERS:
General Appearance:  When viewed from behind straight and parallel, set wider than the forelegs. When viewed from the side placed slightly behind the dog.
Thigh:  Moderately long, slightly inclined, wide with well developed, voluminous muscles.
Stifle:  Well bent.
Lower thigh:  No shorter than thighs.
Metatarsus (Rear Pastern):  Strong, low and vertically positioned. No dewclaws.
Hind feet:  Slightly smaller than the front feet and tending oval shape. Nails and pads are black.

GAIT/MOVEMENT

Free and well balanced with smoothly bent joints. The typical gait is an energetic trot with long strides which come from the powerful rear drive and significant reach in the forequarters. Topline to remain firm.

SKIN
Tight, well fitted without folds or loose skin, still elastic. Evenly pigmented,

COAT
Hair:  Rough and thick double coat. Composed of coarse, thick, slightly waved outer coat and a soft, short and dense undercoat. The outer coat covers the whole body. The natural and untrimmed coat length is between 5-15cms. The head furnishing is very well developed and forms abundant eyebrows, moustaches and beard.
Legs are covered in long, dens furnishing coat. Grooming in the correct form is required. The clipped coat should emphasize the character of a strong and assured dog and by no means be excessively decorative. The coat is left longest on legs and around the muzzle. The clipping should accentuate the massive head with the flat forehead, well lying ears, strong neck and well constructed, strong body.
Colour:  Black, black with insignificant intermingling grey hair is permissible. (Grey intermingling hair not to cover more than a
of the whole body).

SIZE AND WEIGHT
Desired height at the withers:
Males: 72 – 76cm. but no less than 70cm. and not more than 78cm.
Females: 68 – 72cm but no less than 66cm and not more than 74cm.
Slightly taller specimens are tolerated providing they are proportionate and of excellent breed type.
Weight: 
Males: 50 – 60kg. Females: 45 – 50kg.

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on its ability to perform its traditional work.

  • Skull rounded.
  • Partial lack of pigmentation on lips.
  • Incisors not in line in lower jaw. Small incisors.
  • Eyes round; slightly light coloured; oblique or narrow set.
  • Neck too short and not muscular enough.
  • Withers not pronounced.
  • Swayback, or narrow back.
  • Loin too long; narrow; not muscular enough.
  • Shoulders too straight.
  • Forearms too short.
  • Elbow turned in or turned out.
  • Feet turning in or turning out.
  • Hocks turned in, out or sickle.
  • Pacing interspersed when trotting.
  • Guard coat soft or smooth.
  • Rusty shading in guard coat.
  • No undercoat.

SEVERE FAULTS

  • Deviation from sex type.
  • Timid or overexcited behaviour.
  • Head short or light.
  • Visible third eyelid, light coloured eyes.
  • Croup horizontal or too steep.
  • Chest shallow or short.
  • Squirrel tail.
  • Bowed forearms.
  • Movement restricted, sluggish or heavy.
  • Guardcoat silky.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Deviation towards the ancestry breeds.
  • Nose other than black.
  • Wall eye or different coloured eyes.
  • Deviation from scissor bite or missing teeth.
  • Guard coat smooth and lack of head, chest and leg furnishing.
  • Any other colour than the ones described.
  • White spots or markings.
  • Clearly defined patches of grey hair.
  • NB
    Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked or formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either. (Fedco 12/2017 Amended DR/01/2018)

Portuguese Water Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION: Assistance with fishing and retrieving as well as companion dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
In ancient times, the Portuguese Water Dog could be found throughout the entire Portuguese coast.  Thereafter, due to continuous changes in fishing methods, the breed was located mainly in the Algarve region which is now considered as its original birthplace.  Its presence on the Portuguese coast is probably very remote and thus the Portuguese Water Dog should be considered as an autochthonous Portuguese breed. 
 
GENERAL APPEARANCE:
A dog of medium proportions, bracoïd tending to rectilinear to slight convex.  Harmonious in shape, balanced, strong and well muscled.  Considerable development of the muscles due to constant swimming. 
 
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: 
Of almost square shape, with the length of body approximately equal to height at the withers. 
 
The ratio of the height at the withers to the depth of the chest is 2:1; the ratio of length of skull to muzzle is 4:3. 
 
BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:
 Exceptionally intelligent, it understands and obeys easily and happily any order given by its owner.  An animal with impetuous disposition, willful, courageous, sober and resistant to fatigue. It has a severe, penetrating and attentive expression, as well as remarkable visual and scent faculties. An excellent and resistant swimmer and diver, it is the inseparable companion of the fisherman for whom it performs a multitude of tasks, both in fishing and in guarding and protecting its boat and property. While fishing, it will willingly jump to sea to retrieve escaped fish, diving if necessary and likewise if a net breaks or a cable becomes loose.   It is also used as a liaison between boats and shore or vice-versa, even at great distances. 
 
HEAD: 
Well proportioned, strong and broad. Parallel longitudinal axes of the skull and muzzle. 
 
CRANIAL REGION:  
Skull: Seen in profile it is slightly longer than the muzzle (4:3).  Its curvature is more accentuated at the back and the occipital protuberance is pronounced.  Seen from the front the parietal bones are rounded with a slight depression in the middle; the front is slightly hollow, the frontal furrow extends to two thirds of the parietal bones and the superciliary arches are prominent. 
Stop: Well defined and slightly behind the inner corners of the eyes. 
 
FACIAL REGION:  
Nose: Wide, with well open and pigmented nostrils. Black in black, white and pied animals.  In brown specimens the nose is the same colour as the coat, but never marbled. 
Muzzle: Straight, broader at the base than at the extremity. 
Lips: Thick, especially in front. Commissure not prominent. Mucous membranes (palate, under the tongue and gums) deeply pigmented in black, deep brown in brown dogs. 
Jaws/Teeth: Strong, healthy teeth, not visible when mouth is closed. Strong and well developed canines. Scissor bite or pincer bite.

Eyes: Medium sized; noticeable and rounded in shape; set well apart and slightly slanted.  The iris is black or brown and the lids are thin and black edged, brown in brown dogs.  Unapparent conjunctive.

Ears: Set above the eye line, held against the head, slightly raised from the rear and heart-shaped.  Thin in texture, their extremity never reaches below the throat. 
 
NECK:
Straight, short, rounded, well muscled, well set and carried high; connecting to the body in an harmonious transition.  Without ruff or dewlap. 
 
BODY: 
Top line: Straight; level. 
Withers: Wide and not prominent. 
Back: Straight, short, broad and well muscled. 
Loin: Short and well connected to the croup. 
Croup: Well proportioned, slightly sloping with symmetrical and non apparent hip bones. 
Chest: Wide and deep. Its lower edge should reach the elbow.  The ribs are long and well sprung, providing great respiratory capacity. Underline & belly: Gracefully shaped and reduced in volume. 
 
TAIL:
Natural, of medium set-on, thick at its base, tapering towards the end.  Should not reach below the hock.  When attentive curls in a ring, not reaching beyond the middle of the loin. It is a useful aid for swimming and diving. 
 
LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS: Strong and straight. Upright.  Slightly sloping pasterns are admissible. 
Shoulder:  Slanting in profile and transversely. Strong muscular development. 
Upper arm: Strong and medium in size. Parallel to the main body line. 
Forearm: Long and strongly muscled. 
Carpus (pastern joint): Strong bones, broader when seen from the front than from the side. 
Metacarpus (pastern): Long and strong. 
Forefeet:  Rounded and flat with slightly arched toes of medium length. The webbing, extending over the whole length of the toes, is composed of limp tissue and covered with abundant and long hair.  Black nails are preferred but, according to coat colour, may also be white, striped or brown.  The nails do not reach the ground.  Hard central pad and normal thickness in the other pads.  
 
HINDQUARTERS: Upright and well muscled.  Slightly sloping hocks are admissible. 
Buttock: Strong and well rounded. 
Thigh: Strong and medium in length.  Very well muscled.  Stifle joint turned neither in nor out. 
Second thigh: Long and very well muscled. Turned neither in nor out.  Well slanting from front to back.  All tendons and ligaments are strong. 
Hock: Strong. 
Metatarsus (rear pastern): Long.  Without dewclaws. 
Hind feet: Identical to the forefeet in all aspects. 
 
GAIT/MOVEMENT:
Easy movement with short steps at walk; light cadenced trot and energetic gallop. 
 
SKIN: 

Thick, supple; not very tight; internal and external mucous membranes preferably pigmented. 
 
COAT
Hair: The whole body is abundantly covered with strong hair, with no undercoat. 
There are two varieties: one long and wavy and the other shorter and curly. The first is slightly shiny and woolly; the latter is dense, lustreless and forms compact cylindrical curls.  Except for the underarms and groin the coat is even all over the skin. On the head it forms a topknot of wavy hair in the long and wavy variety and of curly hair in the curly variety.  The hair in the ears is longer in the long and wavy variety. 

COLOUR:

The coat is black or brown of various shades, or solid white. In black or brown coats, white is accepted in the following locations: muzzle, topknot, neck, forechest, belly, tip of tail and lower extremities of the limbs, below the elbows and hocks.  The white coat must not be albino, consequently the nose, eyelids and inside of the mouth should be pigmented in black, and brown in brown dogs. 
In this breed partial clipping of the coat, when it is too long, is typical.  The hindquarters, the muzzle and part of the tail are clipped, leaving a plume of full length hair at the tip of the tail. 
 
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT: 
Height at withers: 
Males:      50 - 57 cm.  Ideal height 54 cm. Females:     43 - 52 cm.  Ideal height 46 cm. 
 
Weight:     
Males:      19 - 25 kg. 
Females:     16 - 22 kg. 
 
FAULTS: 
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on the health and welfare of the dog.

SEVERE FAULTS:  
Head: Too long, narrow, flat or pointed. 
Muzzle: Too tapered or pointed. 
Eyes: Light, too protruding or too sunken. 
Ears: Incorrect set, too big, too short or folded. 
Tail: Heavy, dropped in action or raised perpendicularly. 
 
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS: 
Aggressive or overly shy.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

Size: Over-sized or under-sized 

Jaws: Undershot or overshot. 
Eyes: Wall eye, uneven in shape or size. 
Deafness: Congenital or acquired. 
Tail: Docked, rudimentary or non-existent. 
Feet: Presence of dewclaws. 
Coat: Hair different from the described types. 
Colour: Albinism, marbled nostrils in whole or in part. Any other colour than the described type. 
 
N.B.: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

 

                                           

Bullmastiff

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

GENERAL APPEARANCE
Powerful build, symmetrical, showing great strength, but not cumbersome, sound and active.

CHARACTERISTICS
Powerful, enduring, active and reliable.

TEMPERAMENT
High-spirited, alert and faithful. 

HEAD AND SKULL
Skull large and square, viewed from every angle, fair wrinkle when interested but not when in repose. Skull broad and deep with well filled cheeks. Pronounced stop. Muzzle short; distance from tip of nose to stop approximately one-third length from tip of nose to centre of occiput, broad under eyes and sustaining nearly same width to end of nose; blunt and cut off square, forming right angle with upper line of face, and at same time proportionate with skull. Under-jaw broad to end. Nose broad with widely spreading nostrils; flat, neither pointed nor turned up in profile. Flews not pendulous, never hanging below level of lower jaw.

EYES
Dark or hazel, of medium size, set apart the width of muzzle with furrow between. Light or yellow eyes highly undesirable.

EARS
V-shaped, folded forward, set on wide and high, level of occiput giving square appearance to skull which is most important. Small and deeper in colour than body. Point of ear level with eye when alert. Rose ears highly undesirable.

MOUTH
Level desired but slightly undershot allowed but not preferred. Canine teeth large and set wide apart, other teeth strong, even and well placed. 

NECK
Well arched. Moderate length, very muscular and almost equal to skull in circumference. 

FOREQUARTERS
Chest wide and deep, well let down between forelegs, with deep brisket. Shoulders muscular, sloping and powerful, not overloaded. Forelegs powerful and straight, well boned, set wide apart, presenting a straight front. Pasterns straight and strong.

BODY
Back short and straight, giving compact carriage, but not so short as to interfere with activity. Roach and sway backs highly undesirable.

HINDQUARTERS
Loins wide and muscular, with fair depth of flank. Hindlegs strong and muscular with well developed second thighs, denoting power and activity, not cumbersome. Hocks moderately bent. Cowhocks highly undesirable.

FEET
Well arched, cat-like, with rounded toes, pads hard. Dark toenails desirable. Splayed feet highly undesirable.

TAIL
Set high, strong at root and tapering, reaching to hocks, carried straight or curved, but not hound-fashion. Crank tails highly undesirable.

GAIT/MOVEMENT
Movement indicates power and sense of purpose. When moving straight neither front nor hindlegs should cross or plait, right front and left rear leg rising and falling at same time. A firm backline unimpaired by powerful thrust from hindlegs denoting a balanced and harmonious movement.

COAT
Short and hard, weather-resistant, lying flat to body. Long, silky or woolly coats highly undesirable.

COLOUR
Any shade of brindle, fawn or red; colour to be pure and clear. A slight white marking on chest permissible. Other white markings undesirable. Black muzzle essential, toning off towards eyes, with dark markings around eyes contributing to expression.

SIZE
Height at shoulder : Dogs: 64 - 69 cm (25-27 in): Bitches: 61 - 66 cm (24-26 in)
Weight : Dogs: 50-59 kg (110-130 lb): Bitches: 41-50 kg (90-110 lb)

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

NOTE
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
                                                           

Boxer

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION

Companion, Guard and Working Dog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

The small, so called Brabant Bullenbeisser is regarded as the immediate ancestor of the Boxer. In the past, the breeding of these Bullenbeissers was in the hands of the huntsmen, whom they assisted during the hunt. Their task was to seize the game put up by the hounds and hold it firmly until the huntsman arrived and put an end to the prey. For this job the dog had to have jaws as wide as possible with widely spaced teeth, in order to bite firmly and hold on tightly. A Bullenbeisser which had these characteristics was best suited to this job and was used for breeding. Previously, only the ability to work and utilization were

considered. Selective breeding was carried out which produced a dog with a wide muzzle and an upturned nose.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

The Boxer is a medium sized, smooth coated, sturdy dog of compact, square build and strong bone.

His muscles are taut, strongly developed and moulded in appearance.

His movement is lively, powerful with noble bearing. The Boxer must be neither cumbersome nor heavy, nor light or lacking in body substance.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

a) Length of body / Height at withers: Square build, which means that the horizontal line of the back is perpendicular to the vertical line passing through the point of shoulder and to the other vertical line passing through the point of buttock, thus defining a square outline.

b) Depth of brisket / Height at withers: The chest reaches to the elbows. Depth of chest is half the height at withers.

c) Length of nose bridge / Length of head: Length of nose bridge in relation to skull should be 1: 2 (measured respectively from tip of nose to inner corner of eye and from inner corner of eye to occiput).

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

The Boxer should be fearless self-confident, calm and equable. Temperament is of the utmost importance and requires careful attention. Devotion and loyalty towards his master and his entire household, his watchfulness and self-assured courage as a defender are famous. He is harmless with his family but distrustful of strangers. Happy and friendly in play, yet fearless in a serious situation. Easy to train on account of his willingness to obey, his pluck and courage, natural keenness and scent capability. Undemanding and clean, he is just as agreeable and appreciated in the family circle as he is as a guard, companion and working dog. His character is trustworthy, with no guile or cunning, even in old age.

HEAD

This gives the Boxer his characteristic look. Must be in good proportion to the body and appear neither too light nor too heavy. Muzzle should be as broad and powerful as possible. The harmony of the head depends on the balance between muzzle and skull.

From whichever direction the head is viewed, from front, above or sideways, the muzzle must always be in the right proportion to the skull i.e. it must never appear too small. It should be clean, not showing any wrinkle.   However, natural folds are formed in the cranial region when alerted. From root of nose, folds are always

indicated running in a downward direction on both sides. The dark mask is confined to the muzzle and must be in sharp contrast to the colour of the head so that the face does not appear sombre.

CRANIAL REGION

Skull: The cranial region should be as lean and angular as possible.

It is slightly arched, neither too round and short, nor flat; nor should it be too broad. Occiput not too pronounced. Furrow in forehead only slightly marked, must not be too deep, especially between the eyes.

Stop: The forehead forms a distinct stop with the bridge of nose. Bridge of nose must not be forced back into the forehead as in the Bulldog, nor should it be downfaced.

FACIAL REGION

Nose: Nose is broad and black and only slightly turned up with wide nostrils. Tip of nose is placed slightly higher than root of nose.

Muzzle: The muzzle is powerfully developed in three dimensional volume, neither pointed nor narrow, nor short or shallow. Its appearance is influenced by:  a) Shape of jaw. b) Position of canine teeth. c) Shape of lips. The

canines must be placed as far apart as possible and must be of good length, making the front of the muzzle broad, almost square and forming a blunt angle with bridge of nose.

In front, the edge of the upper lip rests on the edge of the lower lip.

The part of the lower jaw with lower lip curved upwards, called the chin, must not markedly protrude over upper lip, seen from front.

Nor should it be hidden by the upper lip but should be well defined from front and side. The canines and incisors of the lower jaw must not be visible when mouth is closed, neither should the tongue show. Median groove in the upper lip (philtrum) is clearly visible.

Lips: The lips complete the shape of the muzzle. The upper lip is thick and padded and fills the space formed by the undershot lower jaw; it is supported by the lower canines.

Jaws/Teeth: The lower jaw protrudes beyond the upper jaw and is curved slightly upwards. The Boxer is undershot. The upper jaw is broad where it joins the cranial region, tapering only slightly towards

the front. The teeth are strong and healthy. The incisors are as even as possible, set in a straight line. Canines wide apart and of good size.

Cheeks: Cheeks are developed in proportion with the strong jaws without markedly bulging. They merge with the muzzle in a slight curve.

Eyes: The dark eyes are neither too small nor protruding or deep set.

Their expression conveys energy and intelligence and must not be threatening or piercing. Eye rims must be dark.

Ears: The natural ears are of appropriate size. They are set on wide apart on highest part of skull. In repose they lie close to the cheeks and turn forward with a definite crease, especially when the dog is alert.

NECK

Topline runs in an elegant arch from the clearly marked nape to the withers. It should be of ample length, round, strong and muscular.

BODY

Square body resting on sturdy, straight legs.

Withers: Should be marked.

Back: Including loin should be short, firm, straight, broad and muscular.

Croup: Slightly sloping, broad and only slightly arched. Pelvis should be long and broad, especially in bitches.

Chest: Deep, reaching to elbows. Depth of chest is half the height at

withers. Well developed forechest. Ribs well sprung but not barrelshaped, extending well to the rear.

Underline: Running towards rear in elegant curve. Short, taut flanks slightly tucked up.

TAIL

Set on high rather than low. The tail is of normal length and left natural.

[*refer note below]

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS

General appearance: Front legs, seen from front, must stand parallel and have strong bone.

Shoulders: Long and sloping, connected firmly to body. Should not be too loaded.

Upper arm: Long, making a right angle to shoulder blade.

Elbows: Neither too close to side of chest nor turned out.

Forearm: Vertical, long, lean and muscled.

Carpus (wrist): Strong, well defined, but not exaggerated.

Metacarpus (Pastern): Short, almost perpendicular to ground.

Front feet: Small, round, tight, well cushioned and hard pads.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Very muscular, the muscles brick hard and visible under the skin.

Hindlegs: Seen from rear: straight.

Thigh: Long and broad. Angles of hip and knee are open but as little as possible.

Knee (Stifle): When dog is standing, should reach sufficiently forward so that it would touch a perpendicular line from point of hip to ground.

Lower thigh: Very muscular.

Hock: Strong and well defined but not exaggerated. Angle approximately 140 degrees.

Metatarsus (Rear Pastern): Short with slight inclination, 95-100 degrees to the ground.

Hind feet: Slightly longer than front feet, tight; well cushioned and hard pads.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

Lively, full of strength and nobility.

SKIN

Dry, elastic without any wrinkles.

COAT

HAIR: Short, hard, glossy and close fitting.

COLOUR: Fawn or brindle: Fawn comes in various shades from light fawn to dark deer red but the most attractive shades are in the middle range (red fawn). Black mask.

The brindle variety: fawn background of varying shades has dark or black stripes running parallel to ribs. Stripes must contrast distinctly to ground colour.

White markings should not be discarded. They can be quite pleasant.

SIZE AND WEIGHT

Height at the withers: Dogs: 57-63 cm.

Females: 53-59 cm.

Weight: Dogs: over 30 kg when height at withers is ca 60 cm.

Bitches: about 25 kg when height at withers is ca 56 cm.

FAULTS

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

· Behaviour / Temperament: Lack of spirit.

· Head: Lack of nobility and typical expression, sombre face, Pinscher or Bulldog type head. Dribbling

, showing of teeth or tongue. Muzzle too pointed or slight. Bridge of nose falling away. Leather or

  weather nose, pale nose leather. So called, “hawk eye”, lack of pigment in haw.

  In uncropped ears: Flying, half erect or erect ears, rose ears.

  Wry jaw, slanting teeth, incorrect position of teeth, poorly developed teeth and unsound teeth due

  to illness.

· Neck: Short, thick and throaty.

· Body: Front too broad or low to the ground. Sagging body, roach or sway back. Lean, long, narrow,

  sagging loin, loosely coupled body. 

  Arched loin, croup falling away. Narrow pelvis, hollow flanks, pendulous belly.

· Tail: Low set on, kink tail                             

· Forequarters: French front, loose shoulders, loose elbows, weak pastern, hare foot, flat, splayed

  feet.

· Hindquarters: Weak muscles. Too much or too little angulation, down on hocks, barrel hocks, cow

  hocks, narrow hocks, dewclaws, hare foot, flat, splayed feet.

 · Movement: Waddling, insufficient reach, pacing, stilted gait.

· Colour of coat: Mask extending beyond muzzle. Stripes (brindling) too close together or too sparse.

  Sooty ground colour. Mingled colours. Unattractive white markings such as a entirely white head or white on one side of the head. Other colours and white markings exceeding one third of the ground colour.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

· Aggressive or overly shy.

· Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

N.B

· Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

· Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked and formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either.

*********************************************************************

QUALIFICATIONS FOR ADVANCED REGISTRATION CERTIFICATE

Before submitting any application the following requirements must have been fulfilled.

  1. Must be on the Kennel Union Breed Register
  2. Be positively identified by microchip or DNA
  3. Be over twenty four (24) months of age
  4. Be a Kennel Union Breed (Conformation) Champion
  5. The registered name of the dog must contain an Affix (Kennel name)
    1. The dog must have passed a FBCSA BC Breed Assessment / Breed Survey
    2. The dog must have passed an Aptitude Test
  6. Hip score must not be worse than C2

Amendment to ARC, Fedco 06-2019 (P.M 01.08.2019) 

Schnauzer

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION

Watch and Companion Dog. 

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY
Originally the Schnauzer was used in the region of Southern Germany as a stable dog as he felt particularly at home in the company of horses. He eagerly watched out for all rodents in order to kill them in a flash. This very early got him the appellation of ‘Rattler’ (ratter). When the Pinscher-Schnauzer Club was founded in 1895, he was entered under the name ‘rough haired Pinscher’. 

GENERAL APPEARANCE
Medium sized, strong, stocky rather than slim, rough haired. 

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS
Square build in which the height at the withers is nearly equal to the body length.
The length of the head (measured from the top of the nose to the occiput) corresponds to half the length of the topline (measured from the withers to the set on of the tail). 

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT
Typical characteristics are his lively temperament, coupled with placid composure. Typical are his good nature, his playfulness and his proverbial devotion to his master. He loves children, is incorruptible, alert yet not noisy. Highly developed sense organs, intelligence, trainability, fearlessness, endurance and resistance to weather and diseases provide the Schnauzer with all the requirements to be an outstanding family, guard and companion dog, also endowed with the qualities of a working dog. 

HEAD
CRANIAL REGION
Skull – Strong, long without markedly protruding occiput. The head should be in keeping with the dog’s force. The forehead is flat without wrinkling and parallel to the bridge of nose.
Stop – Appears well defined due to the brows.

FACIAL REGION
Nose – Well developed nose leather with large nostrils, always black.
Muzzle – Ending in a blunt edge. Bridge of nose straight.
Lips – Black, smooth and tight-fitting to the jaws. Corners of lips closed.
Jaws / Teeth – Strong upper and lower jaw. The complete scissor bite (42 pure white teeth according to the dentition formula), is strongly developed and firmly closing. The chewing muscles are strongly developed but the cheeks must not interfere with the rectangular shape of the head (with the beard).
Eyes – Medium sized, oval, facing forward, dark with lively expression. Eyelids close fitting.
Ears – Drop ears, set high, V-shaped with inner edges lying close to the cheeks, evenly carried, turned forward towards temples. Folds parallel, should not be above the top of the skull.

NECK

The strong, muscular neck is nobly arched, blending smoothly into the withers. Strongly set on, slim, nobly curved, corresponding to the dog’s force. Throat skin tight-fitting without folds. 

BODY
Topline – Slightly sloping from withers towards rear.
Withers – Forming the highest point in topline.
Back – Strong, short and taut.
Loins – Short, strong and deep. The distance from the last rib to the hip is short to make the dog appear compact.
Croup – Slightly rounded, imperceptibly blending into tail set on.
Chest – Moderately broad, oval in diameter, reaching to the elbows. The forechest is distinctly marked by the point of the sternum.
Underline/Belly – Flanks not too tucked up, forming a well curved line with the underside of the ribcage. 

TAIL
Natural: a sabre or sickle carriage is sought after. 

[*refer note below] 

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS
General appearance: Seen from the front, the front legs are strong, straight and not close together. Seen from the side the forearms are straight.
Shoulders – The shoulder blade lies close against the rib cage and is well muscled on both sides of the shoulder bone, protruding over the points of the thoracic vertebrae. As sloping as possible and well laid back, forming an angle of appr. 50º to the horizontal.
Upper Arm – Lying close to the body, strong and well muscled, forming an angle of 95º to 105º to the shoulder blade.
Elbows – Close fitting, turning neither in nor out.
Forearm – Viewed from all sides completely straight, strongly developed and well muscled.
Carpal Joint – Strong, firm, barely standing out against the structure of the forearm.
Pastern – Seen from the front, vertical. Seen from the side slightly sloping towards the ground, strong and slightly springy.
Forefeet – Short and round. Toes well knit and arched (cat foot) with short dark nails and resistant pads.
HINDQUARTERS
General appearance: Standing obliquely when seen from the side, standing parallel but not close together when seen from the rear.
Upper Thigh – Moderately long, broad and strongly muscled.
Stifle – Turning neither in nor out.
Lower Thigh – Long, strong and sinewy, running into a strong hock.
Hock – Very well angulated, strong, firm, turning neither in nor out.
Metatarsus – Short, vertical to the ground.
Hind Feet – Toes short, arched and well knit. Nails short and black. 

GAIT / MOVEMENT

Flexible, elegant, agile, free and ground covering. The front legs swinging as far forward as possible, the hind legs, ground covering and springy, provide the necessary drive. The front leg of one side and the hind leg of the other side move forward at the same time. The back, the ligaments and the joints are firm. 

SKIN

Tight fitting over the whole body. 

COAT
Hair – The coat should be wiry, harsh and dense. It consists of a dense undercoat and a not too short top coat, lying close to the body. The top coat is rough and sufficiently long to allow the checking of its texture; it is neither bristly nor wavy. The hair on the limbs tends to be less harsh. Coat short on forehead and ears. Typical characteristics are the not too soft beard on the muzzle and the bushy eyebrows which slightly shade the eyes.

COLOUR
Pure Black with Black undercoat
Pepper and Salt.
When breeding Pepper and Salt, the aim is a medium shading with evenly distributed, well pigmented pepper colouring and grey undercoat. The shades from dark iron grey to silver grey are all permitted. In all colour variations there must be a dark mask which should adapt harmoniously to the respective colour, emphasizing the expression. Distinct light markings on head, chest and limbs are undesirable. 

SIZE AND WEIGHT
Height at Withers                             Dogs and Bitches 45 to 50cm
Weight                                                 Dogs and Bitches 14 to 20kg. 

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

Particularly :
Head altogether too small or too short
Heavy or round skull
Wrinkles on forehead
Short, pointed or narrow muzzle
Pincer bite
Strongly protruding cheeks or cheekbones
Light, too large or round eyes
Low set, too long or unevenly carried ears
Throatiness
Dewlap. Narrow crest of neck
Too long, tucked up or soft back
Roach back
Croup falling away
Tail set inclined towards head
Long feet
Pacing movement
Too short, too long, soft, wavy, shaggy, silky, white or spotted coat or other mixed colours
Brown undercoat
In Pepper and Salt : a black trace on the back of a black saddle.
Over or undersize up to 1cm.  

SERIOUS FAULTS
Clumsy or light build. Too low or too high on leg.
Inverse sexual type (i.e. doggy bitch)
Elbows turning out
Straight or open hocked hindlegs
Hocks turning inwards
Over or undersize by more than 1cm but less than 3cm. 

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS
Aggressive or overly shy dogs

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

Malformation of any kind
Lack of breed type
Faulty mouth, such as over or undershot or wry mouth
Severe faults in individual parts, such as faults in structure, coat and colour
Over or undersize by more than 3cm
Shy, aggressive, vicious, exaggeratedly suspicious or nervous behaviour

N.B.

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. 

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.   

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked or formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either.(Fedco 12/2017 amended/DR 04/2018)

                       

Giant Schnauzer

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

Originally the Giant Schnauzer was used in the region of Southern Germany to drive cattle.  Around the turn of the century, determined breeders realised that they had outstanding working capabilities and particularly valuable traits in character.  Since 1913 the breed has been registered in a stud book and, in 1925, already the Giant Schnauzer was officially been recognised as a working dog. 

GENERAL APPEARANCE

Large, powerful, stocky rather than slim.  An enlarged, powerful image of the Schnauzer. An imperturbable dog, prepared for defence, whose appearance fills with respect.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

-          Square built in which height at the withers is nearly equal to the body length

-          The length of the head (measured from the tip of the nose to the occiput) corresponds to half  the length of the topline (measured from the withers to the set on of the tail).

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT

Typical characteristics of this dog are his good natured, even temperament and his incorruptible loyalty towards his master.  He has highly developed sense organs, intelligence, trainability, strength, endurance, speed, resistance to weather and diseases.  His inborn ability to bear strain and his self assurance make him best suited for being a companion, sporting, utility and working dog.

HEAD

CRANIAL REGION

Skull:  strong, long without markedly protruding occiput.  The head should be in keeping with the dog’s force.  The forehead is flat, without wrinkling and parallel to the bridge of nose.

Stop:  appears well defined due to the brows.

FACIAL REGION

Nose:    well developed nose leather with large nostrils, always black.

Muzzle:   ending in a blunt wedge.  Bridge of nose straight.

Lips – black, smooth and tight-fitting to the jaws.  Corners of lips closed.

Jaws/Teeth:   strong upper and lower jaw.  The complete scissor bite (42 pure white teeth, according to the dentition formula), is strongly developed and firmly closing.  The chewing muscles are strongly developed but the cheeks must not interfere with the rectangular shape of the head (with the beard). 

Eyes:   medium sized, oval, facing forward, dark with lively expression.  Eyelids close fitting.

Ears:  drop ears, set high, V-shaped with inner edges lying close to the cheeks, evenly carried, turned forward towards temples.  Folds parallel, should not be above the top of the skull. 

NECK

The strong, muscular neck is nobly arched, blending smoothly into the withers.  Strongly set on, slim, noble curved, corresponding to the dog’s force.  Throat skin tight fitting without folds. 

BODY

Topline:  slightly sloping from withers towards rear.

Withers:   forming the highest point in topline.

Back:   strong, short and taut.

Loins:  short, strong and deep.  The distance from the last rib to the hip is short to make the dog appear compact.

Croup:  slightly rounded, imperceptibly blending into tail set on.

Chest:  moderately broad, oval in diameter, reaching to the elbows.  The forechest is distinctly marked by the point of the sternum.

Underline/Belly:  flanks not too tucked up, forming a well curved line with the underside of the ribcage.

TAIL

Natural; a sabre or sickle carriage is sought after.

[*refer note below]

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS

General appearance: Seen from the front, the front legs are strong, straight and not close together.  Seen from the side, the forearms are straight.

Shoulders:  the shoulder blade lies close against the rib cage and is well muscled on both sides of shoulder bone, protruding over the points of thoracic vertebrae.  As sloping as possible and well laid back, forming an angle of appr. 50° to the horizontal.

Upper Arm:  lying close to the body, strong and well muscled, forming an angle of 95° to 105° to the shoulder blade.

Elbows:  close fitting, turning neither in nor out.

Forearm:  viewed from all sides completely straight, strongly developed and well muscled.

Carpal Joint:  strong, firm, barely standing out against the structure of the forearm.

Pastern:  seen from the front, vertical.  Seen from the side, slightly sloping towards the ground, strong and slightly springy. 

Forefeet:  short and round, toes well knit and arched (cat foot) with short dark nails and resistant pads.

HINDQUARTERS

General appearance: Standing obliquely when seen from the side, standing parallel but not close together when seen from the rear.

Upper Thigh:  moderately long, broad and strongly muscled. 

Stifle:  turning neither in nor out.

Lower Thigh:  long and strong, sinewy, running into a strong hock.

Hocks:  very well angulated, strong, firm, turning neither in nor out.

Metatarsus:  short, vertical to ground.

Hind Feet:  toes short, arched and well knit.  Nails short and black.

GAIT / MOVEMENT

Flexible, elegant, agile, free and ground covering.  The front legs swinging as far forward as possible, the hind legs, ground covering and springy, provide the necessary drive.  The front leg of one side and the hind leg on the other side move forward at the same time.  The back, the ligaments and the joints are firm.

SKIN

Tight fitting over the whole body.

COAT

Hair:  the coat should be wiry, harsh and dense.  It consists of a dense undercoat and a not too short top coat, lying close to the body. The top coat is rough and sufficiently long to allow the checking of its texture; it is neither bristly nor wavy.  Hair on the limbs tends to be less harsh.  Coat short on forehead and ears.  Typical characteristics are the not too soft beard on the muzzle and the bushy eyebrows which slightly shade the eyes.

Colour :

-          Pure Black with Black undercoat

-          Pepper and Salt

When breeding Pepper and Salt, the aim is a medium shading with evenly distributed, well pigmented, pepper colouring and grey undercoat.  The shades from dark iron grey to silver grey are all permitted.  In all colour variations there must be a dark mask which should adapt harmoniously to the respective colour, emphasizing the expression.  Distinct light markings on head, chest and limbs are undesirable.

SIZE AND WEIGHT

Height at Withers -                          Dogs and bitches                              60 to 70cm.

Weight -                                               Dogs and bitches                              35 to 45kg.

FAULTS

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree, and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. Particularly:

-          Head altogether too small or too short

-          Heavy or round skull

-          Wrinkles on forehead

-          Short, pointed or narrow muzzle

-          Pincer bite

-          Strongly protruding cheeks or cheekbones

-          Light, too large or too small eyes

-          Low set, too long or unevenly carried ears

-          Throatiness

-          Dewlap, narrow crest of neck

-          Too long, tucked up or soft back

-          Roach back

-          Croup falling away

-          Tail set inclined towards head

-          Long feet

-          Pacing movement

-          Too short, too long, soft, wavy, shaggy, silky, white or spotted coat or other mixed colours

-          Brown undercoat

-          In Pepper and Salt – a black trace on the back or black saddle.

-          Over or undersize up to 2cm.

SEVERE FAULTS

-          Clumsy or light build.  Too low or too high on leg

-          Inverse sexual type (i.e. doggy bitch)

-          Elbows turning out

-          Straight or open hocked hindlegs

-          Hocks turned inwards

-          Over or undersize by more than 2cm but less than 4cm.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

-          Aggressive or overly shy dogs.

-              Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

-              Malformation of any kind

-          Lack of breed type

-          Faulty mouth, such as over or undershot or wry mouth

-          Severe faults in individual parts, such as faults in structure, coat and colour

-          Over or undersize by more than 4cm.

-          Shy, aggressive, vicious, exaggeratedly suspicious or nervous behaviour

N.B.

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only clinically and functionally and clinically healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

*Regardless of the provisions of the current KUSA-adopted standard, docked or formerly docked breeds may be shown at all FCI- and KUSA-licensed shows in South Africa, whether their tails are docked, or natural. Under no circumstances are judges permitted to discriminate against exhibits on the grounds of docked, or natural tails and equal consideration for awards must be given to either.(Fedco 12/2017 Amended DR/Feb 2018) 

QUALIFICATIONS FOR ADVANCED REGISTRATION CERTIFICATE (ARC)

Before submitting any application the following requirements must have been fulfilled.

1.     Must be on the Kennel Union Breed Register

2.     Be positively identified by microchip 3.     Be over twenty-four (24) months of age

4.     Be a Kennel Union Breed (Conformation) Champion

5.     The registered name of the dog must contain an Affix (Kennel name)

6. The dog has been x-rayed for Hip Dysplasia aged twelve (12) months or older and been issued with acceptable documentation and been graded A1 to C2.

7. Obtained:

 -                An acceptable profile in the Dog Mentality Test

 -                Or passed the Aptitude Test

 -                Or obtained a qualification in either Breed Working Test

 -                Or IPO1 or higher.

Amendment to ARC, FEDCO 12.2016 effective 01.04.2017

Great Dane

Posted in Working Group

 

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

GENERAL APPEARANCE
Very muscular, strongly though elegantly built, with look of dash and daring, of being ready to go anywhere and do anything. Head and neck carried high, tail in line with back, or slightly upwards, but never curled over hindquarters. Elegance of outline and grace of form most essential.

CHARACTERISTICS
Alert expression, powerful majestic action displaying dignity.
TEMPERAMENT
Kindly without nervousness, friendly and outgoing.

HEAD AND SKULL
Head, taken altogether, gives idea of great length and strength of jaw. Muzzle broad, skull proportionately narrow, so that whole head when viewed from above and in front, has appearance of equal breadth throughout. Length of head in proportion to height of dog. Length from nose to point between eyes about equal or preferably of greater length than from this point to back of occiput. Skull flat, slight indentation running up centre, occipital peak not prominent. Decided rise or brow over the eyes but not abrupt stop between them; face well chiselled, well filled in below eyes with no appearance of being pinched; foreface long, of equal depth throughout. Cheeks showing as little lumpiness as possible, compatible with strength. Underline of head, viewed in profile, runs almost in a straight line from corner of lip to corner of jawbone, allowing for fold of lip, but with no loose skin hanging down. Bridge of nose very wide, with slight ridge where cartilage joins bone (this is a characteristic of the breed). Nostrils large, wide and open, giving blunt look to nose. Lips hang squarely in front, forming right angle with upper line of foreface.

EYES
Fairly deep set, not giving the appearance of being round, of medium size and preferably dark. Wall, or odd eyes permissible in harlequins.

EARS
Triangular, medium size, set high on skull and folded forward, not pendulous.

MOUTH
Teeth level. Jaws strong with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.

NECK
Neck long, well arched, quite clean and free from loose skin, held well up, well set in shoulders, junction of head and neck well defined.

FOREQUARTERS
Shoulders muscular, not loaded, well sloped back, with elbows well under body. Forelegs perfectly straight with big flat bone.

BODY
Very deep, brisket reaching elbow, ribs well sprung, belly well drawn up. Back and loins strong, latter slightly arched.

HINDQUARTERS
Extremely muscular, giving strength and galloping power. Second thigh long and well developed, good turn of stifle, hocks set low, turning neither in nor out.

FEET
Cat-like, turning neither in nor out. Toes well arched and close, nails strong and curved. Nails preferably dark in all coat colours, except harlequins, where light are permissible.

TAIL
Thick at the root, tapering towards end, reaching to or just below hocks. Carried in straight line level with back, when dog is moving, slightly curved towards end but never curling or carried over back.

GAIT/MOVEMENT
Action lithe, springy and free, covering ground well. Hocks move freely with driving action, head carried high.
COAT
Short dense and sleek-looking, never inclined to roughness.

COLOUR
Brindles: must be striped, ground colour from lightest buff to deepest orange, stripes always black, eyes and nails preferably dark, dark shadings on head and ears acceptable.
Fawns: colour varies from lightest buff to deepest orange, dark shadings on head and ears acceptable, eyes and nails preferably dark.
Blue: colour varies from light grey to deep slate, the nose and eyes may be blue.
Blacks: 
a) Black is black.
In all above colours white is only permissible on chest and feet, but it is not desirable even there. Nose always black, except in blues and harlequins. Eyes and nails preferably dark.
b) Mantle: Black and white with a solid, black blanket extending over the body. Ideally – black skull with white muzzle, white blaze optional, whole white collar preferred, a white chest, white on part or whole of the forelegs and hindlegs, white tipped black tail. Nose always black, eyes and nails preferably dark.
Harlequins: pure white underground with preferably all black patches or all blue patches, having appearance of being torn. Light nails permissible. In harlequins, wall eyes, pink noses, or butterfly noses permissible but not desirable.

SIZE
Minimum height of an adult dog over eighteen months: 76 cms (30 ins); bitches 71 cms (28 ins). Weight, minimum weight of an adult Dog over eighteen months: 54 kgs (120 lbs); bitches 46 kgs (100 lbs).

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

NOTE
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
                                              

 

Pyrenean Mountain Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensurpyrenes that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

GENERAL APPEARANCE
A powerful and imposing dog with a certain elegance. Great size, strongly built but not cumbersome. Well balanced and of noble bearing.

CHARACTERISTICS
A natural guard dog protecting shepherd and sheep.

TEMPERAMENT
Quietly confident. Nervousness and unprovoked aggression highly undesirable.

HEAD AND SKULL
Strong head without coarseness, not too large in relation to size of dog. Skull curved when viewed from front and sides. Breadth at widest point about equal to length from occiput to stop. Head as viewed from above forms a blunt ‘v’ shape, well filled in below the eyes. Sides nearly flat and of good depth. No obvious stop or excessively protruding eyebrow ridges; only a slight furrow, so that skull and muzzle are joined by a gentle slope. Strong muzzle, medium length, slight taper near tip. Black nose and eye rims. Liver or pink pigmentation highly undesirable.

EYES
Almond-shaped, dark amber-brown. Close-fitting eyelids set somewhat obliquely, bordered with black. Drooping lower eyelids undesirable. Intelligent and contemplative expression.

EARS
Fairly small, triangular, rounded tips. Root level with eyes. Normally lie flat against head, may be slightly raised when alert.

MOUTH
Complete dentition, healthy, strong and even. Scissor bite correct i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws, but pincer bite tolerated. Two central lower incisors may be set a little deeper than others. Close-fitting lips, upper just covering lower. Roof of mouth and lips black or heavily marked with black.

NECK
Strong, fairly short. Little or no dewlap.

FOREQUARTERS
Powerful shoulders lying close to body. Medium angulation between shoulder blade and upper arm. Forelegs straight, strongly boned, well muscled. Elbows not too close to chest, nor too far off, giving adequate width of stance and free-striding movement. Pasterns flexible without weakness.

BODY
Broad chest reaching just below elbows; sides slightly rounded, ribcage extended well to rear. Good length back, broad, muscular, straight, level. Dogs usually have more pronounced waist than bitches, giving greater
curve to lower body.

HINDQUARTERS
Broad, muscular loins, fairly prominent haunches, slightly sloping rump, topline curving smoothly into tail. Strong, well muscled thighs tapering to strong hocks. Stifle and hock of medium angulation seen from side. Strongly made double dewclaws on each hindleg; lack of this identifying characteristic totally undesirable. The hindfeet may turn out slightly but legs themselves must be straight.

FEET
Short and compact, toes slightly arched, strong nails.

TAIL
Thick at root, tapering gradually towards tip, preferably slightly curled; reaching below hocks, thickly coated with fairly long hair forming attractive plume. Carried low in repose, with tip turned slightly to one side. Tail rises as dog becomes interested; curled high above back in a circle if fully alert.

GAIT/MOVEMENT
Very free, unflagging and never ponderous. Unhurried, driven by powerful hindquarters. Moving well within its capacity, yet able to produce bursts of speed. Tends to pace at slow speeds.

COAT
Profuse undercoat of very fine hairs; outer coat longer, coarser-textured, thick, lying flat and straight or slightly wavy. Longer towards tail and forming mane round neck and shoulders. Forelegs fringed.
Long, very dense woollier hair on rear of thighs giving pantaloon effect. Bitches tend to be smoother-coated than dogs and have less developed mane.
COLOUR

White
White with patches of badger, wolf-grey, paler shades of lemon, orange or tan. The colour patches may be on the head, ears or base of tail and a few permissible on body.
Other colours undesirable.
Black patches going right down to the roots highly undesirable.
SIZE
Minimum shoulder height: Dogs: 70 cms (27½ ins); Bitches: 65 cms (25½ ins).
Most will considerably exceed this; great size is essential provided type and character are retained. Minimum weight: Dogs: 50 kgs (110 lbs); Bitches: 40 kgs (88 lbs).
These weights apply only to specimens of minimum height, taller ones should be heavier. Weight always in proportion to height, giving a powerful dog of great strength but excess weight due to fat undesirable.

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect on health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

NOTE
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

                                                        

Leonberger

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

Large, strong, muscular yet elegant. Confident, calm and lively. Males in particular should be powerful and strong.

CHARACTERISTICS

Amenable, intelligent and fearless companion; distinguished by his friendliness.

TEMPERAMENT

Self-assured and playful. Neither timid nor aggressive.

HEAD AND SKULL

Head in balance with body and limbs. Strong but not heavy, elongated rather than stocky. Proportion of muzzle to skull equal. No wrinkles. Skull in profile and seen from the front slightly arched. The back part of the skull not substantially broader than at the eyes. Medium stop. Nose black. Cheeks only moderately developed, muzzle moderately tapered but never snipey. Nasal bridge of even breadth and slightly arched (Roman nose).

EYES

Neither deep set nor protruding, of medium size. Oval in shape with kind expression. Medium to dark brown in colour. Eyelids close fitting, showing no haw.

EARS

Set on high and not too far back, pendant, medium sized, hanging close to the side of the head, fleshy with rounded tips, well feathered.

MOUTH

Strong jaws with perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, level bite tolerated. Teeth evenly placed and vertical in the jaw, with complete dentition. No constriction of the canines in the lower jaw. Lips close fitting, black, corner of lips closed.

NECK

Strong, flowing into the withers in a slight arch, without throatiness. Moderately long, no dewlap.

FOREQUARTERS

Shoulders well laid, elbows close fitting. Forelegs straight, well boned and not too close. Shoulder and upper arm long, sloping and well muscled. Pasterns strong, firm and straight when seen from front, almost vertical seen from side.

BODY

Height at the withers to length of body in ratio of 9 to 10 (measured from point of shoulder to point of buttock). Depth of chest approximately 50% of height at withers, which should be pronounced, especially in males. Moderate forechest. Chest broad, deep, reaching at least to the elbows. Oval, not barrel chested. Back firm and straight with broad loins, strong and well muscled. Moderately sloping croup with relatively long, broad rump, gently rounded. Rump never higher than withers. Slight tuck up.

HINDQUARTERS

Legs set not too close together and parallel when seen from rear. Well muscled, long, slanting upper thigh. Moderate bend of stifle. Hocks strong, angle between lower thigh and rear pastern well defined, turned neither in nor out.

FEET

Tight and rounded with well arched toes. Front feet pointing directly forwards. Pads black.

TAIL

Well furnished, straight, reaching at least to hock. On the move, tail slightly curved, not carried above level of back. Never forming a ring.

GAIT/MOVEMENT

Ground covering, even movement in all gaits maintaining a level topline. Extending well in front with good drive from hindquarters. Seen from front and behind, legs move in a straight line when walking or trotting.

COAT

Double coated, medium soft to harsh, fairly long, close fitting. Never with a parting and not obscuring the outline despite the thick undercoat. Straight or slight wave permitted. Mane on neck and chest, especially in the males. Distinct feathering on front legs and ample breeches on hindlegs.

COLOUR

Lion gold, red, reddish brown, sandy (fawn or cream) and all combinations in between, always with a black mask. Black hair tips are permitted. Black must not dominate basic colour. Lighter colour on underside of tail, mane, feathering on front legs and breeches on hindlegs normal, but must not be pronounced. A small white patch or stripe on the chest and white hair on the toes tolerated.

SIZE

Height at withers: Dogs 72-80cms (28¼-31½ ins); Bitches 65-75cms (25½ -29½ ins).

FAULTS

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog and on the dog’s ability to perform its traditional work.

NOTE

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Tosa

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential.  Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION: Formerly fighting dog, nowadays watchdog.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY
Japan has a long history of dog fighting, beginning in the 14th century. With such a history in the background, this breed was produced as hybrid of Shikoku-ken and Western breeds. Named after the area where they were bred, these dogs are sometimes called ‘Japanese Mastiffs’. The Western dogs used for creating the breed were Bulldogs (1872), Mastiffs (1874), German Pointers (1876) and Great Danes (1924) all of which were used to improve the breed by sequential mating. According to some accounts, St. Bernards and Bull Terriers were also involved but it is not known in which years they were used. The Tosa’s established features of stamina and the fighting instinct typically found in Mastiffs may be attributed to the involvement of such breeds.

GENERAL APPEARANCE
Large-sized dog with a stately manner and robust build. The dog has hanging ears, short hair, a square muzzle and hanging tail thick at the root.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT
The temperament is marked by patience, composure, boldness and courage.

HEAD
Cranial Region
Skull - Broad.
Stop- Rather abrupt.
Facial Region
Nose- Large and black.
Muzzle - Moderately long. Nasal bridge straight.
Jaws - Upper and lower jaws strong.
Teeth - Strong with a scissor bite.
Eyes - Rather small, dark brown in colour with a dignified expression.
Ears - Relatively small, rather thin, set high on the skull sides, hanging close to the cheeks.

NECK:

Muscular, with a dewlap.

BODY
Withers - High.
Back - Level and straight.
Loins - Broad, muscular.
Croup - Slightly arched at the top.
Chest - Broad and deep, ribs moderately sprung.
Belly - Well drawn up.

TAIL: Thick at the root, tapering towards the tip, reaching the hocks when let down.

LIMBS
FOREQUARTERS
Shoulder - Moderately sloping.
Forearm - Straight, moderately long and strong.
Pastern - Slightly inclining and robust.

HINDQUARTERS
Muscles very developed. Joints of stifle and hock moderately angulated, strong.
Feet: Tightly closed. Pads thick and elastic. Nails hard and preferably dark in colour.

GAIT: Robust and powerful.

COAT
Hair - Short, hard and dense.
Colour - Red, fawn, apricot, black, brindle. Slight white markings on chest and feet are permitted.

SIZE: Minimum height at withers for Dogs: 60 cm, Bitches: 55 cm.

FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered as a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
Thin bone
Snipy muzzle
Slightly overshot or undershot bite.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

Aggressive or overly shy.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Extremely overshot or undershot bite
Shyness.

NB

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.                                                                 

 

                     

Greenland Dog

Posted in Working Group

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function with soundness essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be mindful of features which could be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed.

UTILIZATION: Sledge dog

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

The Greenland Dog is one of the world’s oldest breeds and has since ancient times been the Inuits’ only sledge dog. Selection of specimens for breeding has been based mainly upon qualities like sturdy strength, hardiness and endurance, but an attractive appearance has also been kept in view.

With its robust nature the Greenland Dog is especially a dog for people enjoying open-air life. He is an excellent companion for people who likes strolling in woods or mountains with their dog

pulling or carrying their gear.

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

A very strong polar spitz, built for endurance and strenuous work as a sledge dog under arctic conditions. Some variation in size is allowed, assuming working ability and harmony are not affected.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

The body is short rectangular with the ratio of height at withers to body length as 10 to 11.

Females are allowed a slightly longer body.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

The predominant temperamental qualities of the Greenland Dog are energy, mental strength and boldness. He is a passionate and tireless sledge dog. To people - also strangers - he is friendly, and while

acting as sledge dog not closely attached to any particular person and therefore not suitable as a guard dog. On hunting seal and polar bear he will show a strong hunting instinct.

HEAD

CRANIAL REGION:

Skull: The skull is broad and slightly arched, broadest between the ears.

Stop: Definite, but not strongly marked.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: Big and dark, corresponding to coat colour, always liverbrown in dogs with red or brown coat and always dark in dogs with sable coat. May turn pink during winter (”winter-nose”).

Muzzle: Broad at base and tapering towards the nose, but not pointed.

Lips: Thin and tight, lying close to the very powerful teeth.

Jaws/Teeth: Powerful jaws with regular, sound and strong teeth.

Scissors-bite.

Eyes: Dark eyes are preferred, but colour should be according to coat colour. They are slightly slanted and neither deep set nor protruding.

Expression is frank and bold. The eye-rims are closely fitting.

Ears: Rather small, triangular, with rounded tips, carried firmly erect.

The ears are very mobile and expressive.

NECK:

Very powerful and rather short.

BODY:

Strong and rather compact, just slightly longer than the height at the withers.

Topline: Level or only slightly sloping.

Back: Straight.

Loin: Broad.

Croup: Slightly sloping.

Chest: Deep and broad, but not barrel-shaped.

Underline and belly: Following the line of the brisket. A slight tuck up accepted.

TAIL:

Set on high, thick and bushy. Carried in a curve or lightly curled over back.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

General appearance: Seen from the front the forelegs are perfectly straight, with powerful muscles and heavy bone.

Shoulder: Moderately laid back.

Upper arm : Straight and strong, somewhat longer than the shoulderblade.

Elbow: Fitting close to the body, but able to move freely.

Forearm: Straight and strong.

Carpus (Wrist): Strong and flexible.

Metacarpus (Pastern): Strong and elastic, only slightly sloping.

Forefeet: Rather big, powerful and rounded, with strong nails and pads.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: Seen from behind the hindlegs are perfectly straight. Very muscular hindquarters with powerful bone and moderate angulations.

Thigh: Powerful and very muscular.

Hock joint: Broad and strong, moderately angulated.

Hind feet: Rather big, powerful and rounded, with strong nails and pads.

GAIT / MOVEMENT:

An efficient, harmonious, fluent and tireless trot is most essential to a sledge dog. In the ring the dog should be shown on a loose lead in a moderate trot to display good reach in

front and good drive from behind.

Seen from front when walking, a Greenland Dog does not single track, but as the speed increases, the legs will gradually converge inward until the feet follow the center line.

COAT

Hair: Double coat, i.e. a soft, dense undercoat and an outer coat of dense, straight and coarse hair, without curl or wave. On the head and the legs the hair is rather short, on the body it is longer and more

pronounced. The coat is longer on the underside of the tail, giving it a bushy appearance.

Colour: Any colour - solid or parti-coloured – is permitted, except albinos and dogs with merle-markings which should be disqualified.

SIZE AND WEIGHT:

Height at the withers : Males 60 cm and upwards,

Females 55 cm and upwards.

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect

upon the health and welfare of the dog and its ability to perform its traditional work.

Light in bone.
Short legs, body low set.
Timid temperament.
SEVERE FAULTS:

Condition which affects the dog’s soundness in a negative way.
Coat long and soft.
Ears not carried firmly erect.
DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

Aggressive or overly shy dogs.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Merle markings
Eyes of different colour.
Blue eyes.
N.B. :

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation, should be used for breeding.